Chapter 2. FUNCTIONAL STYLES. GENERAL FEATURES
As a result of studying this chapter, the learner must:
- know the structure of functional styles of the modern Russian literary language;
- know how to follow genre, stylistic and stylistic norms;
- own understanding of the aesthetic ideal of a particular style.
2.1. The concept of a functional style
Functional style is the use of a literary language in a specific area of human activity. Each functional style selects and organizes language tools (words, morphological forms, syntactic constructions) depending on the conditions and tasks of communication. Functional style has a special, level-by-level organization of language facilities.
Knowledge of the literary language, the ability to switch stylistic codes depending on the conditions and tasks of communication testify to the level of human education, its creativity.
Traditionally, five styles are distinguished in functional stylistics: colloquial, official-business, scientific, journalistic and literary-artistic. Literary language styles can have a predominantly oral or written form. According to this principle, they can be divided into book-written (formal-business, scientific, journalistic, literary-artistic) and colloquial.
Styles are also different based on the language function they implement. The main function of the journalistic style is working , scientific and official-business informative ; conversational style implements the function of communication , i.e. communicative , and literary and artistic - a special, aesthetic language function.
According to the type of reality reflected, colloquial, scientific, journalistic and official-business styles are opposed to literary and artistic styles, because they reflect the reality surrounding us. The style of fiction represents an aesthetically transformed reality, i.е. forms & quot; secondary & quot; reality.
The style system of the literary Russian language is not static, it develops, becomes more complicated, differentiates with the development of the literary language as a whole. In connection with this, modern researchers supplement the style typology that has developed in classical Russian style with new functional varieties: religious-preaching, political, advertising styles. However, this issue remains controversial. Significant transformations have undergone a journalistic style, which in modern style is understood as a style of mass communication.
Complication and refinement of the modern system of functional styles indicate the development and complication of the modern Russian language.
2.2. Structure of the functional style
For communication to be successful, it is necessary to choose the style appropriate to the communication conditions, which can be defined as a special form of literary language, corresponding to the goals and objectives of successful communication (institutional or interpersonal) in a given (socially significant) sphere of communication.
Each style has a complex two-level structure organization:
1. Extralinguistic (extralinguistic) features of the style, due to the sphere of its use, the environment in which communication takes place (ie, consulate), etc.
2. Intralinguistic (intralinguistic) features inherent in this style and highlighting it in the system of functional styles of the Russian literary language.
To extralinguistic features of style, i.e. those that depend on external conditions (factors) of communication, include:
- the language function that dominates the given style (the function of communication, messages and effects);
- the sphere of communication (institutional or interpersonal);
- a form of public consciousness (logical-conceptual - for the scientific style, figurative - for the artistic, conceptual-figurative - for the publicistic, deontical - for the official, business, pragmatic - for the colloquial);
- topic (thematic assignment of communication);
- chronotop (time and place of communication flow);
- the generalized type of the addressee (its severity or fundamental non-expression in communication);
- Intention (communicative intention) of the addressee;
- the generalized type of the recipient (target audience or mass recipient).
These extra-linguistic features form the boundaries of each style and influence the selection of linguistic means for successful communication, i.e. intralinguistic style base.
Intralinguistic features of the style include:
- a typical form of communication (oral/written)
- a typical kind of speech (dialogue/monologue)
- style standards/standards;
- persistent types of language design of speech;
- subjectivity/objectivity of speech;
- creativity/cliciness in using language tools.
Each functional style has underlying , which is the implementation of the style, depending on the specific purposes of communication in a functionally and thematically defined area of communication.
For example, scientific style has three sub-styles: scientific, scientific, educational and popular science. In the official-business style , the official documentary, legal and diplomatic layers are singled out, and in journalistic - information and journalistic.
Each style is realized through a ramified system of specific genres. Genre is a compositionally stable and stylistically typical design of texts. For example, the genre news , which forms the basis of the informational lining of the journalistic style, has a rigid composition, the so-called "inverted pyramid", when the first paragraph contains the most important factual information (what, where and when happened) and the details are given at the end of the text. The stylistic design of the news is underlined neutrally, use is made of invaluable speech tools, the emphasis is on factual information.
So, the style is formed from texts of certain genres (text → genre → underlay → style) and implements with the help of specific language tools of different levels, the main communicative tasks of the author in a socially significant sphere of communication. Thus, the possession of the literary language requires the possession of textual norms (the ability to correctly write text in accordance with the canons of the genre and with the canons of style), and also mastering the language norms of all levels that are necessary to most accurately express one's thought.
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