SYSTEMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WORLDWIDE: SYNERGY APPROACH
By its structural, organizational and functional parameters, the world community can be represented as a complex multi-layered supersystem or supersystem. It consists of a set of interconnected, interdependent, cooperating and at the same time conflicting subsystems in the person of national states, various kinds of international interstate and non-state organizations, multinational corporations, etc. Differences between them are determined by historical, national-cultural traditions, sociocultural, political, cultural, confessional, geopolitical and other characteristics.
Correlation of principles of self-organization and organization of international political systems
Any system is the result of interaction and intertwining of various factors that determine the nature of its structural self-organization and organization. In this context, with regard to the formation and functioning of the world order, it is important to clarify the differences between the processes of organization and self-organization, self-government and administration of both the world community as a whole and its specific subjects.
An organization is understood as a set of conscious, purposeful actions of people or institutions (for example, the state) in the creation, regulation and management of certain phenomena, processes, events to solve specific problems. In other words, an organization is the result of influencing the processes of ordering from the outside.
Self-organization presupposes the actions of a certain group of actors who interact with each other, pursuing their goals, without any coercion from the outside, anarchically, through trial and error. In this case the process of system formation, structuring, maintenance of order is carried out mainly from within, independently. This is due to the mechanisms of grouping and coordinating the actions of these subjects built into the system in the process of their interaction, mutual attraction and integration.
We can distinguish three different, but most closely interconnected and complementary levels of organization and self-organization of the global community: global, regional and national. Speaking of the first level, we mean the formation and functioning of the world community in its relation with actors of regional and national levels.
The second level includes mechanisms, processes, features of interaction of various subjects of supranational and subnational nature.
At the third level, we are talking about the nature of the interacting subjects of the world community on a national scale, i.e. national states as the main components of the world community and subjects of international relations.
One of the most important achievements of systemic and synergetic research has been the recognition of instability and instability as fundamental characteristics of the various forms of self-organization of human communities at both national-state and global levels. In this case, the very concepts of instability and nonequilibrium are released from the negative shade, as they are the same components of the world as stability, stability and equilibrium.
The significance of such a statement of the question will become obvious if one considers that the world order in its fundamental principles of formation and functioning is an open, complex, non-equilibrium system. Because of this, it is characterized by a high degree of dynamism, instability and uncertainty. Like any such system, the world order obeys the synergetics - laws of self-organization of systems. If we use synergistic terminology, the formation and permanent transformation of the world order can be viewed as the process of the emergence of order from anarchy.
In natural sciences, the synergistic approach uses the concepts chaos, order, order from chaos , etc. In the social and human sciences, as applied to social systems (civil society, social and political organizations, the world community, etc.) instead of these concepts it seems more correct to use the notions anarchy, order, order from anarchy , etc.
It is true that the breakdown of socio-economic, political, spiritual and other structures that have developed over many generations, centuries and even millennia undermines the very foundations of the existing system. This leads to large-scale perturbations, revolutions, crises. Their result may be the disappearance from the historical arena of the relevant system or community. Or, receiving impulses from outside and mobilizing internal resources, they are able to find new opportunities to choose the best answers to external challenges and take the path of self-organization on new grounds.
Yet chaos in social and sociocultural systems, especially modern ones, in the sense in which it is understood in natural and exact sciences, can be considered the limiting case, which for research purposes can be taken out of brackets. It can not be said that humanity with each of the perturbations returned to primitive chaos. Even with the complete disintegration of civilizations, world empires or powers, certain moral, ethical, traditional, family, economic and other norms, institutions, etc., collectively constituting a kind of genetic code of a particular people, continued to act.
For example, Western humanity since its inception to the present day has experienced many different kinds of transformations and revolutions. They led to radical changes in social, sociocultural systems, forms of state structure, political regimes, etc. But the fact remains that to this day some basic values, principles, rules, stereotypes of people's relationships, the social parameters of the human community, etc., that have been formed for many centuries and even millennia, remain important.
Therefore, for transformations of this kind, apply the formula & quot; from chaos to order & quot; seems to be illegal. We must, of course, talk about overcoming anarchy and establishing some form of a stable order.
The significance of various kinds of perturbations, crises, and revolutions is that in the process of overcoming them by nonequilibrium systems, it is possible to eliminate obsolete, exhausted resources, showing nodes and elements that are not viable, and forming new elements and structures more suited to new realities. This, as J. Schumpeter would say, "creative destruction", which means getting rid of the old place to create a new one.
In other words, instability, disorder, tension, crisis, anarchy (chaos) can not be considered unambiguously negative. A comprehensive study of this problem seems to help to correctly understand and understand the dynamics of socio-historical processes that are nonequilibrium in nature, and to develop forms, ways and means of a reasonable response to the challenges they generate.
For the international political system, like most other open systems, an organic combination of such complementary opposites as:
- statics and dynamics;
- stability and instability;
- certainty and uncertainty;
- uniformity and diversity;
- symmetry and asymmetry;
- linearity and nonlinearity;
- predictability and unpredictability, etc.
With this understanding, the world order can not be regarded as a permanently established, complete system, because in it the beginning of becoming, the dynamics prevail over the beginning that has become complete. Here the principles of self-organization and organization (understood as a purposeful activity for ordering, structuring and managing systems) are combined in organic unity.
In the formation, preservation and more or less effective functioning of the world community as a tool or mechanism of self-organization, the main role is played by the phenomenon that A. Smith called the "invisible hand". Of course, this phenomenon can not be interpreted literally, as Smith himself understands, with reference to the modern economic system. In our case, the higher and more complex system level, the more complex and diverse interlacing of external and internal factors, elements, relationships, principles, etc., need to be taken into account.
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