THE THEORY OF ABRAHAM MASLOV'S DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERSONALITY
As a result of mastering this topic, the student must:
• the hierarchy of needs identified by A. Maslow
• the basic concepts of the theory of A. Maslow;
be able to
• analyze the development of the personality of the child from the position of the theory of A. Maslow;
• The skills of analyzing the practical application of the theory of A. Maslow.
Introduction to Abraham Maslow's personality development theory
A prominent American psychologist, the founder of humanistic psychology A. Maslow - the author of the original psychological view of human development. He contrasted it with the positivist methodology that underlies behavioral theory. Behavioral approach is characterized by an objective, neutral or, as A. Maslow said, a non-price perspective on the processes under study. The classical concept of objectivity originates from the earliest attempts at scientific cognition of objects and phenomena of the inanimate world. The observer could consider himself objective only if he managed to abandon his own desires, fears and hopes, as well as excluding the alleged impact of the God's providence. This, of course, was a huge step forward, it was thanks to him that modern science took place. However, we must not forget that such a view of objectivity is possible only if we are dealing with the phenomena of an inanimate world & quot ;. Criticizing the behavioral methodology, he stressed that it is not essential for a person's life, whether he had saliva on the call or not. At the same time, the principles of associative learning developed in behaviourism have a certain significance in the study of things that are unimportant and uninteresting, for example, when memorizing as many words as possible while learning a foreign language or for achieving automatism while driving a car. However, if the issues related to the improvement of the education system or human self-development are addressed, the behaviourist approach is ineffective. A. Maslow wrote: "A far more important lesson for me was the birth of a child. Our first child completely changed my psychological views. He forced me to take a new look at behaviorism, which I supported then with great enthusiasm. It was from that time that behaviorism began to seem so stupid to me that I can not stand it now. "
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Criticism of Freudianism was also based on the rejection of positivism. He believed that the interpretation of the unconscious is inadequate, since it appears in works of Freud 3 in fact as evil. The classical psychoanalytic explanation of the unconscious humiliates the person, reducing it to the level of primitive biology. It turned out that a man shows kindness in order to resist his aggression, which became the essence of man, and kindness - only in the way of her disguise. A. Maslow adds that if you argue in this spirit, you can assume that murder is only a way to hide one's love for people.
According to A. Maslow, such a mechanistic model of the spider led mankind to an atomic bomb and perfect technologies of murder, such that were realized in fascist concentration camps of death. At the same time, positivist science can not fundamentally refute the ideology of Nazism, in fact, from a formal point of view, they effectively solved the tasks that they set themselves, ie, skillfully did their job. Refutation is possible only from the standpoint of the value approach. That is why A. Maslow began to assert that modern psychology, which studies a person, must abandon the non-priceless position: "We will not be able to remain cold, calm, detached observers."
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