Chapter 21. The concept, types and functions of warehouses
21.1. Warehouses, their concept and role in logistics
Designing end-to-end processes in most cases provides the optimal solution, provided that raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products are stored in one or another link of the logistics chain for a while. A holistic project shows what needs to be done with the load at the accumulation site. Perhaps, the received cargo units must be disbanded, the goods should be repacked, stored for some time, then new cargo units should be formed and delivered to the consumer at the right time. To this end, a warehouse is organized in the logistics system.
The warehouse is an element of the commodity distribution chain, designed for receiving, placing, storing, assembling and issuing products and having the material and technical base necessary for performing these functions (buildings, structures, devices, etc.).
The manufacturer of the product needs warehouses of raw materials and raw materials, through which the continuity of the production process is ensured. Warehouses of finished products can contain a stock, ensuring the continuity of sales. In the warehouses of trade, finished products are accumulating and waiting for their customers.
The idea of a harmoniously organized logistics system as a system without warehouses is erroneous. Harmony in logistics is achieved by the right combination of warehouse and transit ways of promoting products that have a real form, from the primary source of raw materials to the final consumer.
The warehouse in logistics is used only when it allows to improve the indicators of the through process. Thus, the role of the warehouse is to create conditions for optimizing the material flow.
Logistics poses the task of harmonious organization of intra-warehouse processes, as well as the task of technical, technological and planning-organizational conjunctions of intra-warehouse processes with processes occurring in the surrounding economic environment.
Warehouses in logistics are considered as elements of commodity circulation systems and at the same time as independent systems. Accordingly, two groups of tasks are distinguished:
o problems associated with warehouses arising in the design of commodity circulation systems;
o tasks for warehouses as for independent systems.
In this section the first group of problems is devoted to Ch. 22. The complex of tasks for warehouses as for independent systems is considered in Ch. 23-24.
21.2. Types of warehouses
Warehouses are one of the most important elements of logistics systems. Objective necessity in specially equipped places for the maintenance of stocks exists at all stages of the flow of material flow, starting from the primary source of raw materials and ending with the end user. This explains the availability of a large number of different types of warehouses.
In a wide range, the sizes of warehouses vary: from small premises with a total area of several hundred square meters to giant warehouses covering hundreds of thousands of square meters.
There are different warehouses and the height of cargo stowage . In some, the cargo is stored no higher than human growth, in others special devices are required that can lift and accurately load the cargo into a cell at a height of 24 m or more.
Warehouses can have different designs : be located in separate rooms ( closed ), have only a roof or roof and one, two or three walls ( half-closed strong>). Some goods are stored in general outside the premises in specially equipped areas, in so-called open warehouses.
A special mode can be created and maintained in the warehouse, for example, temperature, humidity.
The warehouse can be used to store goods of one enterprise ( personal use ), and can be leased out to individuals or legal entities ( collective or warehouse- hotel).
The warehouses differ by the degree of mechanization of warehouse operations: non-mechanized, complex-mechanized, automated and automatic.
An essential feature of the classification of warehouses is the possibility of delivering and exporting goods by rail or water transport . In accordance with this feature, you can distinguish substation or port warehouses (located on the territory of a railway station or port), rail> (having a branch line for filing and cleaning wagons) and deep . In order to deliver cargo from a station, pier or port to a deep depot, it is necessary to use road transport.
Depending on the breadth of the assortment of stored cargo, specialized warehouses , warehouses with mixed or universal assortment are allocated.
We will consider in more detail the classification of warehouses on the basis of location in the general process of flow of material flow from the primary source of raw materials to the final consumer of finished products (Figure 101).
Fig. 101. Classification of warehouses by location in the general process of flow of material flow from the primary source of raw materials to the end user
According to this characteristic, two main groups of warehouses can be distinguished:
1) warehouses on the section of the movement of production for technical purposes;
2) warehouses in the area of movement of consumer goods.
In turn, the warehouses of the first group are divided into finished goods warehouses of manufacturing enterprises, raw materials and raw materials storage facilities of enterprises-consumers of production-technical products and warehouses for the circulation of production for technical purposes.
The warehouses of the second group are subdivided into warehouses of the enterprises of wholesale trade in consumer goods located in the places of production of these products, and warehouses located in the places of their consumption. Trade warehouses in production sites belong to so-called output wholesale bases, warehouses in places of consumption - to wholesale trade bases.
The basic scheme of the flow of material flow through a chain of warehouses of various enterprises is shown in Fig. 102.
Fig. 102. Schematic diagram of the chain of warehouses on the way of material flow from the primary source of raw materials to the end user
21.3. Warehouse functions
The totality of the work performed in different warehouses is approximately the same. This is due to the fact that in different logistic processes the warehouses perform the following similar functions:
o temporary placement and storage of inventories;
o the transformation of material flows;
o providing logistic services in the service system.
Any warehouse processes at least three types of material flows: input, output, and internal.
The presence of an input stream means the need to unload the transport, check the quantity and quality of the arrived cargo. The output flow necessitates the loading of transport, the internal flow requires the movement of cargo inside the warehouse.
Realization of the function of temporary storage of material stocks means the necessity of carrying out work on the storage of cargo, ensuring the necessary storage conditions, taking goods out of storage places.
The transformation of material flows occurs by the dissolution of some cargo consignments or freight units and the formation of others. This means the need to unpack the goods, complete the new cargo units, pack them, pack them.
However, this is only the most general idea of warehouses. Any of the above functions can vary over a wide range, which is accompanied by a corresponding change in the nature and intensity of the flow of individual logistics operations. This, in turn, changes the picture of the course of the entire logistics process in the warehouse.
Consider the functions of various warehouses that occur on the path of material flow from the primary source of raw materials to the end user.
In warehouses of finished products of manufacturing enterprises, warehousing, storage, sorting or additional processing of products before shipment, marking, preparation for loading and loading operations are carried out.
Warehouses raw materials and raw materials consumer enterprises accept products, unload, sort, store and prepare it for production consumption.
Warehouses wholesale-intermediary firms in the sphere of production and technical production, in addition to the above, also perform the following functions: ensure the concentration of goods, bundle it in the right assortment, organize the delivery of goods in small batches, consumers, and warehouses of other wholesale intermediary firms, carry out the storage of reserve batches.
The warehouses of trading located in production concentration areas receive goods from manufacturing enterprises in large lots, complete and ship large consignments of goods to wholesale buyers located in places of consumption.
Warehouses located in places of consumption receive goods of the production range and, forming a wide trading range, supply them with retail trade enterprises.
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