Diseases of large and small horned cattle
Diseases of the skin of the skin Kopytets
FOCUS ASEPTICAL SUBDOMAX
Aseptic focal pododermatitis (namnca) occurs as a result of a mechanical trauma, more often from the plantar surface of the hooves. It is characterized by hemorrhages at the base of the skin and the development of reactive aseptic inflammation.
Etiology. Predisposes to pododermatitis the following: a soft elastic horn due to disruption of the keratinization process (lack of sulfur, zinc, calcium, phosphorus, trace elements, vitamins); excessive saturation of the horn with moisture, which sharply reduces its mechanical stability; improper setting of the limbs, leading to a redistribution of the load on individual parts of the supporting surface of the hooves; deformation of the hooves (obtuse and acute-angle hooves); keeping animals on crevice floors; excessive erasure of the horn when keeping animals on concrete floors.
Immediate cause of closed mechanical damage to the basis of the skin is the effect on the horn of the plantar surface of the prohibitive mechanical load arising from unevenness of the floor or soil, especially during long distances of animals.
In cattle, this disease can occur on both the thoracic and pelvic limbs.
Very often weasels take a massive character (affects up to 50% of the livestock) in fattening bulls, which are contained in the slatted floors, the width of the slats and slots of which does not correspond to the zoo hygienic parameters. In this case, the pelvic limbs are more often affected (up to 80% of the total number of patients), which is associated with an excessive load on the plantar surface of the hooves.
Pathogenesis. With excessive pressure or bruise, the integrity of the blood vessels is violated, hemorrhages develop at the base of the skin, and serous inflammation develops. In this case, poured blood and accumulated serous exudate soaked horn sole, as a result of which it is painted red, yellow or dark. With a favorable course (a small injury), the process is stopped, the exudate resolves, and the animal recovers. In more severe, and especially repeated, injuries as a result of accumulation of exudate, the stratum corneum of the epidermis exfoliates from the papillary and forms a cavity filled with a dark sticky mass. In cases where the squeezing of the skin base continues for a long time (sick animals are kept on hard or crevice floor), the accumulating exudate can, spreading, exfoliate extensive areas of the horn of the crumb, opening either on the white line or along the fringe line on the plantar surface. The microflora from the surrounding environment enters the formed slit, which can lead to the development of purulent pododermatitis.
Clinical signs. With minor injuries and minor hemorrhages, clinical symptoms are almost not manifested (only a change in the color of the horn during the clearing can be detected). In case of significant damage, support type lameness of varying degrees arises, on hard soil it increases. Animals lie more, they reluctantly get up, appetite and productivity decrease. Test probes can detect a localization of the inflammatory process. When clearing hoofs, the presence of dark red, yellow or dark horn spots is detected,
Sometimes a double sole.
In cattle on the thoracic extremities, internal hoofs are more often affected, the animal is standing crossed limbs (Figure 4.1), and on the pelvis - external hooves.
With timely elimination of the causes, the outlook is favorable. The signs of the disease disappear after 2 ... 3 days.
Diagnosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs.
Treatment. Eliminate the effect of the causal factor and ensure an even distribution of the load on the claw. The animals are provided with peace, they are kept on a soft litter. In the first 24 ... 48 hours locally apply cold (cold clay, ice, running water). Medical treatment is not required.
Fig. 4.1. The position of the thoracic limbs with aseptic pododermatitis of internal hooves
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