Forming a non-classical approach to the definition of truth
Since the mid-twentieth century, there has been a departure from traditional installations. Thus, Ludwig Wittgenstein refuses to search for the fundamental foundations of knowledge and focuses on the rules of practical use of language - & quot; language games & quot; . Instead of the traditional comparison of thinking with reality , Wittgenstein compares with reality not thinking, but language, moving from the study of thinking to the study of language.
The truth of the expressions of our language, Wittgenstein believes, is established by relating them not to facts, but to other expressions of the same language. In any language there is a body of basic empirical statements, with respect to which the truth of all the others is established. Establishing the truth of the basic statements themselves does not require special procedures, not because they are self-evident, but because their truth follows directly from the practice of our language behavior. The desire to make sure of their truth is usually perceived as stupidity. Whatever refined evidence is given to confirm the veracity of a statement of the type "This is my hand", all this will be less convincing than simply stating the fact that < i> this is my hand.
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A set of such statements form a conceptual framework that defines a system of interrelated reference references that define the rules of the corresponding "language game". These rules are not derived either from the objective laws of the external world, nor from the analysis of cognitive abilities of the subject. The truth of the proposals that describe the basic picture of the world does not have the nature of a logical necessity, and the picture itself, as Wittgenstein puts it, is a kind of mythology, all of which are only relatively stable to the extent that they support each other. Thus, in establishing the criterion for distinguishing true and false Wittgenstein also avoids infinite regression, establishing a relatively firm basis for such distinction, albeit within the framework of a finite language practice.
The formation of the classical definition of truth as the correspondence of knowledge of reality is connected with the conviction that this reality is one and only, and therefore the true knowledge must also be one and only. However, already in Antiquity, along with the concept of cognition as a gradual approach to the Absolute, there was also an alternative concept, rising in its origins to the Sophists. This concept allowed for the multiple nature of truth, since our knowledge is always connected with the solution of practical problems , arising in specific life situations.
In the case when the Truth is represented as the Absolute, the task of cognition is to reproduce as completely as possible the Absolute in the content of the abstract consciousness. If cognition is considered in a practical context, the truth becomes multifaceted and depends on the individual characteristics of the cognizing subject. In its formation, personal qualities of a person, his interests and preferences, a concrete life situation acquire essential importance. However, here there is also a person's personal responsibility for the results of his cognitive activity, which he accepts as true.
Denial of the universally impersonal criterion of truth means that there are no formal procedures for establishing the truth of our knowledge, so a person can not shift responsibility for his theoretical statements and practical decisions to certain objective laws or universal logical norms. Inspired by the philosophers of the classical period, the hope of finally finding absolutely firm bases for a rational choice of cognitive and practical strategies was in vain. Man is doomed to live and act, to take responsible decisions, without having an exhaustive knowledge of the situation, on the border of knowledge and ignorance, , which means that there is always an open possibility for him to make a mistake in choosing.
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