Problem-searching and communication technologies
If the ghemi of life continues to grow, it can be foreseen that the difficulties in establishing and maintaining useful contacts between people will also increase more and more. If you listen attentively to what young people are saying, it turns out that the ability to make friendships - once a simple affair - has already acquired a new complex turn for them. When schoolchildren, for example, complain that "it's impossible to communicate with people", they do not mean simply annoying the distinction between generations, but also the problems that they have with each other.
If the factor of transience is recognized as the cause of alienation, some moments in the behavior of young people, at first sight strange, become understandable. Many of them, for example, consider sex a quick way & quot; with someone to meet & quot ;. They imagine sex not as a result of a long process of loving relationships, but as a shortcut to the deepest human understanding.
The same desire to speed up friendly contacts helps to explain the fascination with such psychological techniques as "group psychotherapy", "T-groups", "microlaboratories", non-verbal games, as a whole by its totality of processes and phenomena falling under the definition group dynamics. The youthful storm of life in communes is also explained by a hidden sense of loneliness and the inability to "open up", to be frank with others.
The essence of problem-learning learning technologies
The main task of modern education is to develop the quality of creativity in trainees. The process of creativity includes not only the search for a new, but mainly such innovations that have the undeniable value of new objects, new knowledge, new problems, new methods for their solution.
How does a person think? Can you teach him to think better, more efficiently, more productively and more accurately? The problems of thinking are of increasing interest not only among philosophers and psychologists. Particular attention to this topic is also revealed by philosophical anthropology. What is the reason for this? VM Rozin rightly believes that thinking is becoming more and more complicated in all areas of activity and practice. As a result, for effective thinking, thinking has to be planned and programmed, and this is one of the most important functions of methodology. In turn, the complexity of thinking is associated with both the expansion of the range of tools and methods used, and with the need to choose one or another cognitive, more widely thought, strategy. If, for example, in the XIX century. the natural-scientific method and approach were considered the main ones, nowadays, along with them, humanitarian and social thought strategies (discourses) are widely used. Often the researcher himself must work out a strategy and a plan of thinking, in fact, completely new ones.
Over the past decade, significant changes have taken place in the study of human thought processes. Many traditional points of view related to the study of intelligence, thinking, cognition, are now obsolete. This applies, in particular, to the desire to create a "final", "the only true" model of cognition based on epistemology and cognitive psychology. Another tendency characteristic of this psychological direction is the aspiration to "protect" theory of thinking from other, related areas of psychological knowledge. "Psychologists begin to identify a person with the cognitive style that he possesses, with cognitive motives that are peculiar to him, with the ideas that he produces. However skilfully we did not describe certain features of cognitive processes, in themselves these features or their specific organization are not capable of acting in the objective world. The subject of the deed, act is the man himself (but not the motive or thinking), the person himself. " Some mechanical schemes of thinking are not confirmed even in the course of personal experience.
There is a need to develop new promising areas of cognitive psychology. Among them, in our opinion, the evolutionary information epistemology, which seeks to integrate cognitive models, models of information processing and modern evolutionary ideas, as applied to the problem of psychological research of human cognition, is of particular value.
The world around us has changed dramatically over the past decades: now it is even difficult to imagine a sphere of practical activity for people, where information technologies are not used at all. The personal computer, the Internet and other global means of communication have become indispensable attributes of our daily lives. The scientific and technological process, the rapid development of information technologies and the creation on their basis of ever more complex artificial intellectual devices place modern epistemological psychology in front of a very difficult choice - either it should adjust its ideas taking into account the theoretical achievements and experimental data of cognitive science, or, limiting itself to traditional theoreticians -cognitive paradigms, to be on the periphery of cognitive research.
In recent years, a sharpened interest in the phenomenon of meaning arose in Russian psychology. This concept has become interdisciplinary today. It is used in philosophy, ethics, psychology and in other humanitarian disciplines. This creates a fundamental opposition - meaningfulness and senselessness. According to the French philosopher J. Deleuze, understanding is possible only as self-affirmation of meaning before the face of senselessness, the birth of something in the unfolding field is nothing. To understand, according to Deleuze, means to become infected with meaninglessness, in order to enter into a fight with a fatal outcome, to generate a new meaning.
How is the meaning created? Where does he stay? How is it transmitted and understood? These issues are devoted to the work of outstanding philosophers and psychologists, but there is still no exhaustive answer. There is an awareness of the fact that we came across an extremely important problem of understanding. Culture is the constituting of a certain meaningful community between people, which, by linking and uniting, is open to other being and experience. Here, the limited instrumental approach to human existence is obvious. All these circumstances explain the need to address the theme of the semantic world of education. The sense of meaningfulness of life gives support, inspires hope, forcing again and again to turn to revealing the essence of meaning.
Understand - means always "get in touch". If we consider written or oral speech as an information field, it is important to understand the mechanisms that determine the phenomenon of creative interpretation of the sent text.
Understanding always means a person's relation to the text, a synonym for the one with which unit of communication, what a significant education we are dealing with. The process of understanding is characterized by the following factors:
1) the mental-physiological activity of the person to whom the text was sent;
2) the degree of textual complexity;
3) the creativity of the one who receives the message, because the communication is distorted in the communication process;
4) varying degrees and depth: understanding can be complete and incomplete, adequate and inadequate.
When we listen to the lecturer and can not enter the laboratory of his thought, we are in a space of meaninglessness. Meaning is not present in his lecture as something pre-prepared, foreseen: it should only be caught. On the contrary, understanding of meaning is an original and creative process. The result of understanding can be much richer than the content that is contained in the message. The meaninglessness, therefore, in the aspect of phenomenology, understanding psychology, in the aspect of meaningful meaningful integrity appears as a stage, as a way to acquire meaning.
In our pragmatic age, it is not always possible to think through some meaningful thoughts. The weight of a phrase we often evaluate only by the content that it contains. This seems obvious. The professor's rating is determined by his works, according to what was sounded from the department. We are not allowed to foresee how our word will respond. " Meanwhile, expressed and meaningful - is this the same thing? Do we always manage to comprehend the inexhaustible depth of meaning? A positive result of human communication can be a relatively complete or partial understanding. However, it is important to go beyond the narrowly linguistic hypotheses and proceed to a comprehensive study of this phenomenon.
In analyzing the phenomenon of understanding, we, of course, face the underdevelopment of the minds of those we train. However, it is this circumstance that makes us think more deeply about the phenomenon of understanding, the application of cognitive abilities. I. Kant noted that the claim of reason to him can be expressed in three questions corresponding to the three kinds of this ability.
1. What do I want? (the mind asks).
2. What does it depend on? (asks the ability of judgment).
3. Where it leads? (the mind asks).
By their ability to answer these three questions, people are very different from each other. The first question requires a clear mind, capable of understanding oneself; and this natural gift in the presence of some culture is quite common, especially if attention is paid to it. For the right answer to the second question, in Kant's opinion, talent is needed. Book scholarship increases knowledge, but if it does not come to the aid of reason, it does not expand the concept and understanding. It should be distinguished from the game with attempts to use the mind without respecting its laws.
It is extremely important in the teacher's work to understand how deeply the meaning of what is being presented in the lessons or during the lectures is understood. Each message sent to the audience goes through many barriers that largely distort the meaning or make it impenetrable. For example, epistemological barriers indicate that many people do not have abstract thinking at all or have it to a weak degree. As a result, if the message deals with abstract realities, its meaning may be misunderstood or distorted.
The concepts "meaning" and "meaning" are basic for interpreting the structure of human consciousness. In the scientific literature, we meet with many different interpretations of these terms, often opposite, sometimes vague. Difficulties in explaining the functioning of the two main constituents of individual consciousness still remain in psychology. "
There is every reason to believe that the ability to abstract thinking is not characteristic of all people. From empirical research it is known that many students are not at all able to master the material associated with a high level of abstraction. Ability to abstraction is not directly related to the fact of creativity of thinking. The high level of creativity does not provide absolute flexibility of the intellect and its readiness to perceive the material in an abstract-abstract version. However, nevertheless, there are specific methods for developing mental skills.
The novelty of the statement of the problem is manifested in the substantiation of the idea that in the life of each person, thinking does not exist as a purely intellectual process, but is inextricably linked with other mental processes, not present in isolation from the consciousness of man as a whole; in the disclosure of thought, which shows that in real thinking an essential role can play not only meanings, but also images, intuition, etc .; in the assumption that it is possible to talk about the evolution of thinking, its stages, they are characterized by different ratios of right and left hemisphere strategies; in the assertion that even in the cognitive system of man the majority of mental processes proceed unconsciously, their integral conscious control is carried out here mainly at the level of goals and intentions; in clarifying the fundamental difference between the concepts & quot; creative thinking & quot; and & quot; abstract thinking & quot ;; in the development of techniques for developing mental skills.
In this context, problem learning as a creative process is represented as a solution to non-standard scientific-teaching problems by non-standard methods: hypotheses, hypotheses, hypotheses.< center>
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