Professional competencies of a modern journalist-journalist
The development of information technology, the emergence of new channels for delivery of content, changing the consumer of information - all this requires journalists to have additional skills, rethinking many principles of work. Today, journalists of print media often face new demands, the professional competence of a journalist-journalist changes (Table 1.4). In this connection, the process of media convergence around the world is connected with the training and retraining of journalists. It is often subject to discussion in terms of reviewing the professional roles and skills of reporters and editors.
The question of the professional competencies of a journalist-journalist remains open today. There are four main points of view that Russian and foreign journalists practice on the issue under consideration.
1. A modern journalist-generalist. He must equally well be able to prepare content for different media, understand which media platform is most preferable for the dissemination of one or another material.
Table 1.4. The main competencies of a modern journalist - a newspaper
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What should a modern journalist-journalist know?
1. The view that the modern newspaper should strive for universalism clearly does not find its confirmation in practice.
2. A journalist needs to have an idea of the changes taking place in modern journalism.
3. Journalists need to be able to collect, process information through innovative, information technologies.
4. A modern newsboy must have the skills of preparing materials for various media platforms, it is desirable that he knows the basics of photojournalism and video shooting, but at the same time he retained a key specialization and was a professional in it.
5. The modern newspaper should be able to remake the material for the Internet version, evaluate the article depending on its online potential, i.e. understand what news is better to convey in the form of video material, and what - the usual message with comments on blogs.
6. A modern journalist must orient himself in social networks.
7. A modern journalist should be able to interact with other departments and divisions of the media company, including with specialists involved in creating audiovisual content.
8. Training of journalists does not end with the graduation of the school. The knowledge, skills and competencies of a journalist in a convergence environment must be continuously developed. In this regard, newspaper journalists attend various training programs.
Anton Glebov (2007-2010 - editor of the Internet project sovsport.ru.) believes that "universalism can be achieved, although it is very difficult, but we should strive for this". He notes that "each of the department's journalists can cope with the work that usually does not perform." For example, a correspondent who writes news can take up statistics, a bild editor is able to write news, and statistics can easily make a photo. "
A. Glebov believes that "perhaps it is now difficult to imagine a universal journalist, but in ten years there will probably be a lot of journalists and students in the first year of journalism will be taught this."
Charlie Meyerson, editor and presenter of the "hot" section News & quot; ChicagoGradbury. com, "believes that" anyone who can deliver news in different ways and through different media will be a very valuable employee. "
2. A modern journalist should have the skills of preparing materials for various media platforms, it is desirable that the newsboy knows the basics of photojournalism, video shooting, but at the same time he retained a key specialization and was a professional in it. As Pavel Sukhov notes, (2009-2011 - editor-in-chief of GZT.RU), the writing journalist should be able to shoot a video, put it on the server, and then another person should process it. A journalist should have a key competence. It is impossible to comment simultaneously on the event, to shoot yourself against the background of the event and to mount the record ". Also believes Mark Webber (Marc Webber), deputy editor of the site & quot; San online & quot; (The Sun Online), which says that the journalist does not need to "hold the pen in one hand, and in the other camera - they are different specializations, and each has its own specialists".
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3. A modern newspaper journalist should be able to write and correctly express his thoughts. The presence of some additional skills (for example, the ability to create and process photo and video materials, understand which media platform is preferable for the distribution of a particular material) not necessarily. Alexander Aliev (2008-2011 - director of the Internet project "Izvestia"), notes that "he worked a lot with students of journal faculties - the main problem - they can not write, they do not know how to express their thoughts."
4. The Universal Journalist
The concept of a news station-general became very popular with the development of the media convergence process. The term & quot; universal journalist & quot; has different interpretations, it has acquired different synonyms.
Foreign experts almost do not use the term & quot; universal journalist & quot; ( universal journalist ) - the concept of "cross-media trained journalist" is much more common - a cross-media journalist, i.e. a journalist who knows how to prepare materials for different media, different media platforms, as well as the concept of "multi-skilling journalist" is a multimedia journalist.
Often, the term & quot; multi-skilling & quot; means not only the ability to produce content for different media, but the ability to cover different topics.
You can also find the terms & quot; do-it-all journalists " - journalists of all trades and " all-in-one journalists " - universal journalists, journalists -universals. & quot; They also prepare materials for different media platforms. Most can work with television cameras, digital cameras and sound equipment. They know what it is better to imagine as a video material, and what to convey through the audio material & quot;.
To denote journalists who are able to prepare materials for different media, the term "crack-journalist" is often used - a backpack journalist. This term was first used by American researchers. In a backpack, such a journalist usually has a laptop, a professional dictaphone, a digital camera with spare batteries, a mobile phone, notebooks and pens. Backpack journalists are specially trained people from among qualified journalists. Very often they make exclusive content for the site. They shoot video, write articles, prepare photographic materials and edit it themselves with the help of easy-to-use equipment. Then the backpack journalist sends the content to the editorial office through broadband data transmission or using other methods of information transfer: via satellite communication or fiber optic cable.
Backpack journalist is the same journalist of all trades, wagon, cross-media or multimedia journalist, but his specificity is that he usually travels to a certain place, possibly at the place of military operations, and from there sends his materials. A backpack journalist can penetrate the points where it is impossible to go through to a large crew. In Iraq, for example, backpackers worked in close proximity to the war zone.
Backpackers are sometimes called "solos" - singles. An example of such a rucksack journalist can be Preston Mendenhall, MSNBC.com, an international correspondent who in May 2001, armed with a dictaphone, digital video camera, camera, laptop and satellite phone, went to Afghanistan.
The two-week business trip cost MSNBC.com about $ 6,000, including local guide services. 6000 dollars, was then about 1/10 of the cost of an ordinary group of journalists from four people: a videographer, correspondent, director and sound engineer.
Among the other famous universal journalists are Charlie Meyerson, Correspondent & quot; Chicago Gambier. com & quot; (chicagotribune.com), Adrian Phillips (multimedia reporter on TBO.com, etc.)
Charlie Meyerson first worked as a radio journalist before he received this post. Becoming the correspondent of the Chicago Symphony Bureau, he was engaged in updating the text news on the site, preparing the morning daily newsletter by mail, going out on the air on the radio in the morning, and also conducting trainings for his colleagues in broadcasting.
Adrian Phillips was a journalist for the print and broadcast media, as well as a photojournalist before he began working in the multimedia newsroom "Tampa Bay" (Tampa Wow).
In 2005, the journalists of the company & quot; Gannet & quot; Another term was created - & quot; mobile journalists & quot; ( mobile journalists, mojo ). Mobile journalists are, as a rule, freelancers, often they do not have their own workplace in the newsroom, and they prepare materials outside the editorial office. The specificity of mobile journalists is that through modern smartphones they can compose multimedia material in the field, supplement photos, audio materials and upload to the site.
Almost all backpacks, multimedia (or cross-media, universal), mobile journalists had previous experience in different media.
There is an opinion that universal journalists can displace ordinary journalists, but most researchers are sure that it will take a long time before they play the main roles in the media company, if at all this time comes. Today, journalists of all trades are an exception rather than a common practice.
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