1.5 Theoretical and practical pedagogy
At the present time, pedagogy is becoming more and more evident on two levels: 1) theoretical science and 2) practical activity. Both are called pedagogy. It's time to distinguish between where we are dealing with theory and where with the application of this theory in practice. Theoretical pedagogy has as its goal the study of the essence of pedagogical phenomena, the establishment of laws and regularities of the educational process. Basic category of theoretical pedagogy - scientific law (regularity).
Practical pedagogy uses the achievements of theory to construct a more effective teaching and educational process. This is reflected in the creation and application of increasingly sophisticated technologies. Main category of practical pedagogy - technology.
In principle, theoretical pedagogy should not worry about whether its discoveries will be applied in practice, because its goal is the knowledge of the truth. And how this will be used and whether it will be used at all - the theorist is not interested. When A. Einstein was asked whether his theory of relativity could be used in practice, he replied: "I do not know. There are such people - engineers, they will understand & quot ;. In connection with what has been said, it is pointless to criticize pedagogical theory for its separation from practice.
The big problem of the current practical pedagogy is the separation from the advanced level of theoretical developments. The science of man has made enormous strides, but its achievements are still little known to teachers and have not been adequately reflected in pedagogical technologies. Work continues at the level of pedagogical intuition, pedagogical skill and skill.
Understanding pedagogy as an art has lasted for many centuries, one can not say that they completely abandoned it today. In the preface to his book, "Man as an Object of Education," published in 1867, KD Ushinsky stressed: "It follows from the foregoing that pedagogy is not a collection of the propositions of science,/strong> but only the collection of rules of educational activity. " Next, the great teacher clarified:" Pedagogy is not science, but art: the most extensive, complex, the most the highest and most necessary of all arts. The art of education rests on science. As an art complex and extensive, it rests on a multitude of vast and complex sciences; as art, it requires, apart from knowledge, the ability and inclinations, and, as art, it seeks an ideal that is eternally attained and never completely unattainable: to the ideal of the perfect person. "
After 140 years of accumulated knowledge, pedagogy no longer agreed with an honorary place in the line of arts. Millions of teachers have successfully solved the problems of education, increasingly relying not on flying fantasy, but on scientific developments and rationally based technologies. This could not but affect the definition of pedagogy, which received a dual status - science and art. Such a definition was in good agreement with reality and suited both the zealots of the pedagogical art priority and the adherents of logic who advocated the creation of a rigorous pedagogical theory cleared of uncertainties.
It is not known how much such a definition would hold if already in our time meticulous investigators did not raise the question squarely - what is the correlation of science and art in pedagogy? Science, like art, can only be full, one hundred percent. That is why it is necessary to determine with absolute clarity the status of pedagogy, to unequivocally emphasize its priorities. If the palm tree of the primacy remains for art, then pedagogy is just a collection of councils, rules and recommendations for the implementation of an incompetent educational process. Pedagogy-science should contain all the components of a rigorous scientific theory, highlighting the systemic approach and the logic of cognition of its subject by objective scientific methods. Its conclusions must be of the character of strictly fixed dependencies (regularities).
Today, no one questions the scientific status of pedagogy. Dispute has passed in a plane of a parity of a science and pedagogical practice. Too ambiguous are the real achievements of educators: in one case they are due to profound knowledge and skilful application of pedagogical theory, in the other - success brings high personal mastery of the teacher, the art of pedagogical influence, flair and intuition. In recent decades, the inconsistency between school practice and pedagogical science was especially acute. The latter was due to the fact that she does not provide practice with progressive recommendations, divorced from life, does not have time for rapidly flowing processes. In short, the theory wheels overtook the practice car. The teacher has ceased to believe science, there has been an alienation of practice from theory.
The question is very serious. It seems that we began to forget that the true mastery of the teacher, the high art of education rests on scientific knowledge. If someone could achieve high results without knowing the pedagogical theory, this would mean the need for the latter. But this does not happen. Some bridge over a stream or a simple hut can be built without special engineering knowledge, it is impossible to build modern buildings without the latter. So in pedagogy: the more difficult it is for a teacher to solve problems, the higher should be the level of his pedagogical culture. All the achievements of science, and only failures - from its absence.
However, the development of pedagogical science does not automatically ensure the quality of education. It is necessary that the theory is remelted into practical technologies. While the convergence of science and practice is not fast enough, many important scientific knowledge are not in demand by practice. According to experts, the gap between theory and practice in some areas reaches 10-15 years.
This is also confirmed by the experience of innovative teachers who have introduced into the broad practice often not the newest, but only well-known scientific developments. That's what the well-known pedagogue VF Shatalov said about this: "If you deeply penetrate into what we are doing, you will understand: all this is rooted in our classical pedagogy. There is only an element of perfection, improvement. Nothing more. I do not even try to oppose in the slightest degree our work to all that has been achieved by pedagogy for its entire length, for thousands of years ".
Pedagogy is rapidly progressing, justifying its name itself dialectical, volatile science. In recent decades, tangible progress has been made in a number of its areas, primarily in the development of new learning technologies. Modern computers, equipped with quality training programs, successfully cope with the tasks of managing the learning process, allow you to achieve high results with less energy and time. There has also been progress in the field of creating better methods of upbringing, technologies of self-education and self-education. Innovative educational institutions create favorable conditions for faster penetration of new scientific developments into practice. Scientific and production complexes, author schools, experimental sites are notable milestones on the path of positive changes.
About Pedagogical Science
A certain branch of knowledge is called science, when the following necessary conditions are observed: 1) its own subject is clearly identified, isolated and fixed; 2) for its study apply objective methods research; 3) fixed objective links ( laws and patterns) between the factors, the processes that constitute the subject of study; 4) established laws and patterns allow
It's easy to see that all of the above requirements for pedagogy have been met to some extent, but it is a measure of compliance that characterizes the level of scientific development.
Many theorists of pedagogy, following the principles of classification of sciences, established by the German philosophers V. Windelband and G. Rickert, refer pedagogy to the so-called normative sciences. The reason for this is the peculiarities of the laws known to pedagogy. Until recently, they were and in many ways still remain broad conclusions, expressing the general trends in the development of pedagogical processes. This makes it difficult for them to be used for specific forecasting, the course of the process and its future results can only be predicted in the most general terms. The conclusions of pedagogy differ in large variability, uncertainty. In many cases, pedagogy only establishes the norm (the "teacher should, the school must, the pupil should"), but does not ensure the achievement of this norm scientific support.
It is easy to understand in this connection why the issue of the correlation of science and pedagogical skill is not removed from the agenda. The norms, even those established on the basis of the analysis of the essences of pedagogical phenomena, are only abstract truths. It is only the thinking teacher who is able to fill them with a living meaning. Science can not and must not go down to parsing each concrete case, its task is to generalize. But to what extent?
The question of the level of theorizing of pedagogy, i.e. about the limit at which she still does not miss out of the sight of a person, but also does not rise too high in abstractions, turning into a collection of "dead", "deserted" schemes, very relevant. Attempts to divide pedagogy into theoretical and normative (practical) dates back to the past century. As for the means, we read in the monograph of the beginning of the 20th century, pedagogy is a theoretical science, since its means consist in the knowledge of the laws to which the physical and spiritual nature of man is subordinated; in the same way, with regard to goals, pedagogy is a practical science. "
In the process of continuing and now the discussion on the status of pedagogy, various approaches were proposed to analyze and structure the knowledge accumulated by science, assessing their level and maturity of science itself. For us, it is important that most researchers around the world consider it justified and legitimate to single out from the vast field of pedagogical knowledge of theoretical pedagogy, containing basic scientific knowledge about laws and laws education, education, training. The main components of the system of scientific pedagogy are also axioms and principles. Through specific recommendations and rules the theory combines with practice./p>
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