Basic principles and patterns of personality-oriented educational process
We formulate the most important principles and patterns of personality-oriented developmental learning.
1. The principle of continuity of development. Personally oriented developmental education is a holistic process that proceeds from birth to extreme old age. Ignoring this principle leads to clearly expressed phenomena of conservatism, resistance to innovation, reluctance to learn new knowledge, manifested at a very different age.
2. The principle of the learner's activity. According to him, the subject should not only be a ready consumer of information, but also an active participant in the design of the educational process at all stages, should actively use the acquired knowledge. The consequence of this principle are those cases when, contrary to the external conditions, the existing educational system, and not because of it, the individual achieves a high level of self-development.
3. A block of regularities reflecting the systemic nature of the influence of the educational environment, active interaction with this learner's environment. These patterns can be structured as follows:
a) exciting interest, launching self-development mechanisms
b) maintaining interest, problematic, prescribed, methodological, instrumental support (makeup, accompaniment);
c) realization of positive feedback in the following structure of the process:
- the acquisition of knowledge;
- reproductive application of knowledge in standard situations;
- access to the level of free operation of knowledge (facts, phenomena, patterns)
- the transformation of knowledge into a toolkit (into invariants of free combining);
- the synthesis of a new - productive creative activity;
- getting results (for example, during the implementation of specific projects);
- evaluation of the result and the way it is received, reflection - the closure of positive feedback.
4. The block of laws governing the management of the educational process. In existing educational systems, this process is managed by the "black box" principle, when external educational influences are subject to a pre-established approved program or adjusted depending on output characteristics, which are indicators of the success of training or the results of knowledge control. In this case, management is carried out without taking into account the phenotype, psychological type, inclinations and other features not only of each trainee, but also of their groups. Taking into account these features in the models of developmental learning, it is possible to optimize the process of personality development, to find the points of resonant effects, growth points that are most sensitive to educational influences that provide the activation mechanisms. The principles of such management are realized within the framework of psychological support of the educational process.
5. The previous block of regularities corresponds with regularities in the organization of the educational process, the leading of which is the transition from the "filling" model. knowledge, skills, skills to the ignition model & quot; - activation of internal intellectual resources. An important role is played by the patterns of optimal cycling of the educational process, the coordination of educational influences with certain mental structures of the individual, their organization and state; implementation of sequences "activity - cognition - technology - communication - mastering - self-reflection - activity"; the patterns of optimal interaction with the information flow, the structuring of information, the identification of the fundamental variables of influence and their integration into educational schemes, the implementation of the principle of the necessary sufficiency of knowledge.
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