Cultural diversity and education
Qualitatively new aspects of the interrelation between culture and education arose in the philosophical and cultural studies of cultural and ethnic diversity. Historically, there are two main approaches. One proceeds from the need to preserve and enrich the diversity of national culture. The other has in mind the inevitable leveling of such a variety within the general society.
The idea of education and training, consistent with the multiculturalism of society, has a long history. Suffice it to recall the appeal of Comrade Ya. A. to bring up the ability to live with others. Among the famous scientists who formulated the thesis of preserving cultural diversity through education, was I. G. Fichte. Inspired by the ideals of the Enlightenment, the German philosopher and educator came up with projects that promote, in his opinion, German education, while preserving the "colors of national culture" states that will join the united Germany.
In a similar vein, KD Ushinsky, NI Pirogov, NA Berdyaev, Π. F. Kapterev, N. K. Roerich and other domestic thinkers, when they talked about the relationship between the national and the universal in "beneficent synthesis" culture and education.
The concept of the interdependence of education, ethno-cultural diversity and national culture was formulated by Soviet science. Proclaimed the development of "national in form, socialist in content" cultures. However, such a concept came into conflict with the declarations of the prospects for the emergence of a new cultural community - the Soviet people and the rationale for assimilation, the disappearance of the identity of individual national cultures.
Representatives of any ethnoculture have features of the world outlook. You can not understand any subculture without referring to the perception of a world shared by members of a cultural group. At the same time, representatives of each cultural group have their own ways of solving problems that are common to all people (K. Levi-Strauss). Bearing in mind similar properties of subcultures, one can speak about an objectively possible dialogue of cultures as the foundation of education in a multi-ethnic society.
Philosophical and cultural studies of cultural dialogue as a way of personal development in a multicultural society during the Soviet period were proposed by VS Bibler, Μ. M. Bakhtin, Yu. M. Lotman.
An attempt to formulate philosophical principles for overcoming the contradiction between cultures in the process of education was undertaken by VS Bibler. His concept of intercultural dialogue was based on the fact that the world is experiencing a revolutionary change of attitude towards the individual as an object of education - from a person of culture to a human being, matching in his thinking and activities different, irreducible cultures. " The concept provides for education and training for the roll-call of different civilizations, for a dialogical study of each of these civilizations. In teaching and education, it is proposed to identify cross-cutting problems, a special intercultural dialogue may arise around them, which later, throughout the whole of human life, must be enriched. Explaining his concept, VS Bibler stressed that the "value and spiritual spectra of different forms of culture ... are tightened in one cultural space, in one mind and thinking, they require from man not an unambiguous choice, but a constant spiritual conjugation, a deep dispute in the focus of some ... eternal questions of being. And in this - in the dialogue of different cultural meanings of being - the essence of ... the modern logic of thinking & quot;
Μ. M. Bakhtin spoke of cultural integrity as a complex & quot; non-homogeneous whole & quot; and about man as a unique skolk culture, entering into a dialogue with other unique, equal, with the right to their own point of view, individuals - cultures. According to Bakhtin, in the border zones of interaction, the dialogue of different cultures, the distinctive features of each culture become clear and clear, dialogue with the "alien conscience" occurs. Consonant with this thought is the opinion of Yu. M. Lotman about the presence in any culture of a stable core and marginal areas where the attraction of the "core" weakened and where there is a field for the emergence of new cultural values.
The idea of cultural appropriateness, meaning the consideration of pedagogical questions within a wide social panorama of diverse cultures, was developed in the works of IV Bestuzhev-Lada, MS Kagan, AV Mudrik, VI Slobodchikov, V. A. Tishkov, etc. The works of these Russian scientists emphasize that education not only immerses the individual in the cultural and historical experience of life, but also preserves, translates, creates this experience. Education and training, thus, are activities on conservation, transfer, reproduction, development of culture. The concept of multilevel unity is proposed, according to which culture is a condition for education, just as education and training are a condition of culture. Cultural diversity is not reduced to the nomenclature of ethno-cultural groups living together, but refers to the multiple and multilevel forms of the identity of a common national culture (VA Tishkov). Nationwide culture is interpreted simultaneously as a consequence of transmission (continuity and continuity of development) and diffusion (interpenetration) of cultures. The theory and practice of education is designed to ensure the interests of an ethnically diverse culture, to identify pedagogical ways of co-existence of representatives of different ethnic groups and cultures in the general social and educational space.
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