Features of working with disabled people, disabled people
According to the Federal Law "On the Social Protection of Persons with Disabilities in the Russian Federation" a disabled person is a person who has a health disorder with a persistent disorder of the body's functions caused by a disease, the consequences of injuries or defects, leading to limited life activity and causing the need for his social protection.
Limitation of life is the total or partial loss of the person's ability or ability to exercise self-reliance, move independently, orient himself, communicate, control his behavior, learn and engage in work.
Cripples, blind, deaf, dumb people, people with impaired coordination of movement, completely or partially paralyzed, and the like are recognized as disabled due to obvious deviations from the normal physical condition of a person. Disabled persons are also recognized as persons who do not have external differences from ordinary people, but suffer from diseases that prevent them from working in the same way that healthy people do. For example, a person suffering from ischemic heart disease is not able to perform heavy physical work, but mental activity is quite within his power.
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All persons with disabilities are divided into the following groups for different reasons:
- by age - disabled children, disabled adults,
- the origin of disability: invalids since childhood, war invalids, handicapped people, persons with general disabilities;
- Degrees of working capacity - Group I invalids (disabled), Group II invalids (temporarily disabled or able to work in limited areas), Group III invalids (able to work in sparing working conditions)
- the nature of the disease - mobile, immobile, immobile disabled.
Depending on the membership of a particular group, issues of employment and organization of the life of disabled people are solved. Mobility invalids (able to move only with the help of wheelchairs or on crutches) can work at home or at enterprises (subject to their delivery to the place of work). This circumstance causes many additional problems, including: the equipment of the workplace at home or at the enterprise, the delivery of orders for the house and finished goods to the warehouse or the consumer, material and raw materials and technical supply, repair, prevention of equipment at home, the allocation of transport for delivery disabled person to work and work, etc.
Even more difficult situation with immobile invalids, bedridden. They can not move without help, but are able to work mentally.
If such a disabled person lives in the family, many problems are solved relatively simply. And if he is lonely? Special workers are needed who would find such disabled people, identify their abilities, help them to receive orders, conclude contracts, acquire the necessary materials and tools, organize sales of products, etc. It is clear that such a disabled person needs daily care from the morning toilet and ending with the provision of products. In all these cases, special social workers who receive wages are assisted by disabled people.
The main task is to prevent further impoverishment of these, the most vulnerable segments of society in conditions of transition to market relations. In this regard, the need for reforming the pension system and social services is brought to the forefront; the implementation of medical and social expertise, a rehabilitation system for disabled people, prosthetic and orthopedic assistance, inpatient and non-permanent care for pensioners and disabled people, etc.
Of great importance is the system of rendering urgent social assistance to the elderly and disabled in the extreme conditions of transition to the market and their adaptation to the conditions of a market economy, targeted social support for the vital functions of these categories of citizens.
An increasing role is played by the improvement of the system of state social insurance, medical social insurance with the establishment of additional guarantees for the elderly and disabled people, as well as the formation of non-state pension funds.
It is necessary to improve the legal basis of the social protection system for the elderly and disabled.
The creation of a system of social protection and social support for the elderly and disabled in modern conditions is a necessary guarantee of their social rehabilitation and ensuring normal life.
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