Location and development of chemical and forestry complex, Chemical industry - Economic geography and regional studies

Location and development of the chemical-forest complex

Chemical-forest complex is composed of two large and complex branches: chemical and forestry, which play an important role in expanding the range of production of consumer goods.

Chemical Industry

This branch has a decisive role in the development of scientific and technological progress and in the increase of the efficiency of social production (through chemicalization, that is, the use of chemical technologies and materials in all sectors of the economy (Figure 7.1)).

The relationship of the chemical industry with other industries

Fig. 7.1. The relationship between the chemical industry and other industries

The production of the chemical industry can be divided into production items, the output of which is about 60%, and subjects of long-term or short-term personal use - 40%. Proceeding from this, the products of the chemical industry approximately equally determine the development of both the "A" and "B" productions, and the "B" productions.

The approximate composition of the products produced by the most important branches of the chemical industry is as follows. Chemical industry: caustic soda, synthetic resins, plastics, paint and varnish materials, film and photographic film, etc. The industry of mineral fertilizers: nitrogen, phosphoric, potash fertilizers, as well as chemical plant protection products. Petrochemical industry: synthetic rubbers, ethylene, propylene, benzene, etc.

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The rational distribution of industrial production, and in particular of the chemical industry, provides significant savings in the costs of extraction and transportation of raw materials and fuel, and the delivery of finished products to consumers (Table 7.9).

By the degree of influence of individual factors on the location of chemical industries, they can be divided into several groups.

In the first group includes the production, gravitating to sources of raw materials. This is typical for many chemical industries that consume large amounts of raw materials per unit of production or low-transportable raw materials (for example sulfuric acid). These industries usually have the closest proximity to sources of raw materials. These include the production of potash fertilizers, caustic and soda ash, synthetic dyes, certain types of plastics and synthetic rubbers.

In the second group unite the production, gravitating to fuel and energy resources. They are characterized by a large consumption of fuel, thermal or electrical energy per 1 ton of products. This production of carbide and calcium cyanamide, many types of chemical and synthetic fibers, methanol, etc.

In the third group includes the production, gravitating to areas of concentration of manpower. These industries are characterized by high labor input of the output and as a social factor should contribute to the fullest employment of the population in small and medium-sized cities. Such enterprises include enterprises for processing plastics, producing rubber products and tires, viscose and kapron fibers.

The fourth group are the industries that gravitate toward the consumption areas. These include the production of low-transportable products (hydrochloric and sulfuric acid, sponge rubber, hollow plastic products), as well as low-concentration substances (ammonia, liquid fertilizers, superphosphate and products for completing finished products).

Table 7.9

Composition of the chemical industry and the main factors determining the location of enterprises (according to VG Glushkova)

Groups of chemical industries

Production and production

The main factors determining the location of enterprises producing these products

Mining Chemical

Extraction of basic chemical raw materials (solid species): sulfur (native sulfur and sulfur pyrite), apatite, phosphorite, potassium and sodium chloride

Raw material

Basic (inorganic) chemistry

Production:

salts;

soda;

acids;

alkalis and mineral fertilizers, including: nitrogen;

Potash,

phosphorite flour, simple superphosphate, double superphosphate

Raw material

Raw materials and electric power Raw materials and consumer raw materials

Consumer and Raw Materials Commodities

Raw material

Chemistry of basic organic synthesis

Production of basic organic synthesis products (organic acids, alcohols)

Raw materials, water, electricity

Chemistry of polymers (polymeric materials)

Production of synthetic resins, plastics, chemical fibers, synthetic rubber

Raw materials, water, electricity; labor for the production of chemical fibers

Recycling

Polymer

Content

Manufacture of plastic products, rubber products

Consumer

A diverse group of low-linked industries

Production of synthetic dyes, varnishes and paints, household chemical goods, etc.

Consumer

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The fifth group unites mixed-oriented industries that produce products of ubiquitous consumption and use a variety of types of raw materials. The location of such production facilities is possible both near the raw material base and in the areas of consumption of products.

It should be noted that this unit is conditional, since many chemical industries can be attributed to different groups. In addition, when most chemical plants are located, the presence of water resources and environmental factors must be taken into account.

The location of the chemical industry is influenced by the industry's production links: intra- and inter-branch. Specificity of these links is that the share of intra-industry consumption is rather high (40%), while the production of chemical industries is used in almost all spheres of the national economy.

The existing production units, based on the chemical industry, include Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Volgograd, Kemerovo, Ufa, Salavat-Sterlitamak, Berezniki-Solikamsk junctions. Tomsk, Tyumen and Angarsk-Usolye industrial sites are in the process of formation.

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