Selecting the location of treatment plants and determining the required areas for the construction of sewage treatment plants
The site for the treatment facilities should be selected in conjunction with the design and layout of the water disposal facility, and in the presence of a district planning scheme, in conjunction with this scheme. In all cases, the conditions for water, gas, heat and power supply to the projected plant and the conditions for providing it with transport routes should be taken into account. As a rule, the site is located on the leeward side of the prevailing winds in relation to residential development and below it along the river. It is desirable that the site has a slope, ensuring the gravity movement of waste water through treatment facilities; it should not be flooded. The grounds of the site should allow the construction of structures without the installation of expensive bases; It is desirable that the groundwater table is below the foundations of the structures. The site for treatment facilities and the place of production of treated sewage in the reservoir must be coordinated with the bodies of the State Sanitary Inspection and approved by the local Council of Working People's Deputies.
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The wastewater treatment plant should be located as close to the sewer as possible to reduce the length of the outflow manifold and its cost. At the same time they are guided by the norms that determine the width of the sanitary protection zones between the treatment facilities and the boundaries of residential quarters. The necessary width of the sanitary protection zone depends on the method of wastewater treatment and the productivity of the stations. It can vary from 0.2 to 1 km or more. With the arrangement of facilities for drying the sediment in an enclosed area or in the absence of a sludge treatment plant on the territory of the sewage treatment plant, the width of the protective zone is reduced by 30%. Sanitary ruptures for treatment plants with a capacity of more than 500 thousand m3/day and the degree of purification are established in agreement with the organs of the State Sanitary Inspection.
The purification method and type of wastewater treatment plants are selected for the required degree of wastewater treatment, features of their composition, productivity of the treatment plant and other local conditions.
The type of treatment facilities are selected on the basis of a technical and economic comparison of options, taking into account capital costs and operating costs. In this case, it is necessary to use not general aggregated cost indicators (per 1 m3 of wastewater to be purified or per 1000 people of the population) but with indicators determined taking into account local conditions (for example, the cost of building materials, the range of their transportation, etc.)
The arrangement of all facilities should ensure rational use of the territory, the possibility of constructing a sewage treatment plant in turn and expanding it in connection with an increase in sewage inflows; all facilities must be accessible for repair and maintenance. The length of intra-station communications (trays, channels, dykes, pipelines, etc.) in all cases should be minimal. The mutual high-altitude location of the treatment facilities must take into account the design head differences in structures, communication lines, measuring devices.
When developing master plans for sewage treatment plants, one should strive to unite (block) the structures included in them, for example, grids, a boiler house and a material warehouse; preaerators with primary sedimentation tanks, primary sedimentation tanks, aeration tanks and secondary sedimentation tanks; chlorinator and a chlorine warehouse; blowing, sludge pumping station and workshop; offices and laboratories, a sanitary checkpoint and a laundry for work clothes.
In addition to the main production facilities, on the territory of the station, depending on local conditions, there are auxiliary and service objects: boiler room, workshops, transformer substations, garage, office, laboratory, etc.
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The territory of the station must be fenced, landscaped, planted, illuminated and have roads with artificial covers, as well as footpaths to each of the buildings and buildings. Depending on local conditions, the project may provide for the protection of structures from snowdrifts and flood waters. Individual structures are protected in accordance with safety regulations.
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