Benefits of Integrated Plant Protection
1. Increase the effectiveness of protective measures. The joint application of various methods of protection often gives a synergistic effect. Above, in the section on fungicides, mention was made of the synergism of the mixture preparations and the way it was established. Synergism can be achieved by mixed crops of different varieties and cultures, as well as simultaneous use of different methods of protection. For example, in the control of aphids carrying jaundice virus by spraying crops with insecticides, the yield increase was 13%, while cultivating a beet resistant to jaundice - 14%, and for counter-spraying of a resistant variety - 39%, t .e. 12% higher than the combined effect of two events.
2. Save money and reduce the adverse effect of protective measures. Combination of spraying of potatoes simultaneously against the Colorado beetle and late blight not only reduces the cost of plant protection works, but also reduces damage to plants due to a decrease in the number of passes of agricultural machines but between rows.
3. The integrated struggle is aimed at reducing the pesticide press for crop production. And this is important not only for protecting the environment and the health of consumers of products - people and farm animals, but also for a longer life of pesticides themselves, because the less chemical treatments are produced, the slower the accumulation of resistant strains in populations of pathogens. For example, the use of tomato protein, the stability inducer, produced by the saprotrophic strain
The role of resistant varieties is particularly great in integrated plant protection. In Fig. 4.6 shows the rate of increase in the disease in three varieties, differing in the degree of stability.
Fig. 4.6. Effect of plant resistance, as components of integrated plant protection, on the program of chemical treatments
On susceptible variety 1, the development of the disease exceeded the economic hazard threshold already in July, long before harvesting; therefore, several chemical treatments are required to protect it. In partially resistant variety 2, the parasite concentration reaches the economic hazard threshold only in August, therefore one chemical treatment is sufficient to reduce the threshold, and the parasite does not accumulate at the economically perceptible level at stable grade 3, and no chemical treatments are needed.
The American phytopathologist W. Frye compared some American varieties of potatoes in terms of their resistance to late blight and showed that growing a stable variety "Sebago" Instead of a susceptible variety, "Disperse Rural" replaces the weekly treatment of the latter fungicide with M-45 ditane at a concentration of 0.672 kg/ha; difference in resistance of varieties "Hodgson & quot; and & quot; Chippewa & quot; is equivalent to 0.2 kg/ha of ditane, and the varieties "Sebago" and & quot; Hodgson & quot; - 0.45 kg/ha.
From the world practice
The American company, which produces vegetable concentrates (soups, etc.), has entered into agreements with a number of farmers who grow tomatoes, carrots, celery and other vegetables for it, to introduce integrated plant protection methods developed by experienced phytopathologists into their production. These methods included three components:
1) cultural methods - crop rotations, including crops that reduce harm from weeds, viruses and pathogens of root rot; field sanitation; use of varieties resistant to dangerous diseases; soil cultivation, which contributes to the death of stocks of infection; use of high ridges;
2) monitoring of species composition and number of insects and plant pathogens - is carried out weekly;
3) processing of crops - is carried out only when the number of pests reaches the economic threshold of harmfulness, and biological protection with bacterial and fungal preparations is used along with chemical pesticides.
In the results of these measures, it was possible in three years to reduce the number of chemical treatments and the cost of protective measures three times and at the same time to improve the sanitary situation and the quality of products.
Thus, the use of the entire arsenal of plant protection products, taking into account the analysis of processes occurring in populations of pests and plant conditions, allows not only to prevent the mass multiplication of parasitic organisms, but also to regulate their numbers with low financial costs and minimal impacts, dangerous to human health and the environment.
And in the end - a little philosophy. In the natural sciences, for a long time, the analytical approach prevailed-the accumulation of facts that broadened the notion of the structure and functioning of individual links in the surrounding world. Now, such facts are accumulated enough to add these links to the overall worldview system. There was a concept of Gaia-land, considering the biosphere as a single superorganism, which, like any individual organism, exists thanks to a metabolism called the "food chain". On land, plants store solar energy, using green pigments, to create an organic biomass that feeds an army of diverse organisms - from the smallest viruses to giant bisons, elephants and giraffes. Herbivorous animals become prey to predators; their wastes are used as food by various microorganisms and animals, and also are utilized by plant roots. L carbon stored in the form of high-molecular and hard-to-reach organic compounds in wood, soil and in bogs is slowly decomposed by wood-destroying and soil-borne fungi, bacteria and invertebrates, which eventually return carbon as carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The same processes take place in the world's oceans, where microscopic algae that make up phytoplankton create an organic substance that feeds all marine life up to giant whales and sharks.
And regulators of this celebration of life are the host of parasites, which determine the ratio of the number of different participants in the feast. Humanity is one of the groups of parasites on the body of Gaia, because we exist at the expense of the resources of this superorganism, our master. "Our farms deplete the top layer of the soil, nothing replacing it, we catch fish from the sea and reduce forests. We adapt the physiology of life to our own needs, extract fertilizers and cover the fields with them, in much the same way as the wasp-parasite changes the physiology of the caterpillar, extracting the food it needs. We use resources and leave waste behind us, like a malarious plasmodium, which turns red blood cells into piles of rubbish. The parasite, which does not own self-regulation, will die out and, perhaps, destroy its master. And we are very inept parasites. Real parasites can change their masters with incredible accuracy for specific purposes ... They are real experts and cause only necessary harm, as evolution taught parasites: meaningless harm to the master will turn into harm to themselves. If we also want to succeed in the parasitic field, we must learn from the masters & quot; . And the concept of organic farming, the search for approaches to the return of biological diversity of plants to agricultural production, the view of parasites not only as pests, in the fight against which all means are good, but also as our helpers - the objects of biological plant protection - all this indicates that humanity is gradually coming to realize the global problems facing it.
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