Biochemical patterns of adaptation to muscle work
Adaptation of the organism to the constantly changing environmental conditions (external and internal) - the ongoing process of adaptation of the organism to these changes, designed to maintain the homeostatic equilibrium in it. In this section, adaptation of the athlete's organism to muscular work will be considered, since biochemical mechanisms make a significant contribution to its manifestation.
The common definition of such adaptation is as follows. Adaptation to muscular work is a structural and functional restructuring of the body, allowing the athlete to perform physical exertions of greater power and duration, develop higher muscle effort than untrained people.
Immediate (emergency) adaptation
Urgent adaptation is the body's response to a single impact of the training load, expressed in "emergency" adaptation to the changed state of the internal environment. This answer is mainly reduced to changes in the energy metabolism and activation of higher nervous centers responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism.
The following changes can be attributed to the main changes in catabolic processes leading to increased energy supply of physical loads:
• acceleration of glycogen breakdown in the liver with the formation of free glucose (adrenaline is stimulated);
• Increase in aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of muscle glycogen, which provides the production of a large amount of ATP under the influence of adrenaline;
• Increase in the rate of tissue respiration in the mitochondria. This happens for two reasons. First, the supply of mitochondria increases with oxygen, and secondly, the activity of tissue respiration enzymes increases;
• Increased mobilization of fat from fat stores under the influence of the sympathetic nervous system and adrenaline;
• increase in the rate of oxidation of fatty acids and the formation of ketone bodies;
• The slowing down of anabolic processes primarily affects the synthesis of proteins and is caused by glucocorticoids.
Long-term (chronic) adaptation
As for long-term adaptation, it is formed gradually on the basis of the multiple realization of the urgent adaptation by summing up the traces of repeated loads.
One can single out the following main directions of long-term adaptation:
• Increase in the rate of recovery processes, especially the acceleration of the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids;
• Increase in the content of intracellular organelles - myofibrils, mitochondria, sarcoplasmic network, eventually these changes cause muscle hypertrophy;
• Improving the mechanisms of neuro-hormonal regulation, at the same time, the synthetic capabilities of the endocrine glands increase, which allows them to maintain a high level of hormones that support muscular activity when performing physical exertion;
• development of resistance to biochemical shifts. This concerns the resistance of the body to an increase in acidity, caused by the accumulation of lactate. It is assumed that the insensitivity to the growth of acidity in adapted athletes is due to the formation of molecular forms of proteins that retain their biological functions at low pH values.
Urgent and long-term adaptation have mutual influence on each other. Urgent adaptation leads to the emergence of deep biochemical and functional shifts in the body, which trigger the mechanisms of long-term adaptation. And long-term adaptation increases the opportunities for urgent adaptation. This interaction of urgent and long-term adaptations gradually leads to an increase in the performance of the athlete.
In sports practice, to evaluate the influence of the training process on the formation of adaptation to muscular work, three types of training effect are used: urgent, retarded and cumulative.
The urgent training effect characterizes the urgent adaptation. Essentially, the urgent training effect is a biochemical shift in the athlete's body, caused by processes that constitute an urgent adaptation. These shifts are fixed during exercise and during urgent recovery.
The pending training effect is a biochemical change that occurs in the body of an athlete in the days following training, that is, during a period of delayed recovery. The main manifestation of the delayed training effect is the supercompensation of substances used during physical work. These include, first of all, muscle proteins, creatine phosphate, muscle and liver glycogen.
The cumulative training effect reflects biochemical shifts that gradually accumulate in the athlete's body during long training. In particular, the cumulative effect can be considered an increase in the long-term training of indicators of urgent and retarded effects.
The cumulative effect has specificity, its manifestation largely depends on the nature of training loads.
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