Behavior as a moral category
From the definition of the notion of moral culture follows the notion of deep, organic interconnection of the concepts & mor; morality & quot; and & quot; behavior & quot ;. In this connection, there is a need to clarify concepts such as & quot; activity & quot ;, & quot; behavior & quot ;, & quot; act & quot ;, & quot; motive & quot ;, and also the relationship of concepts & quot; organizational command & quot ;, & quot; ; business behavior & quot; and & quot; service behavior & quot;.
Activities - a set of actions that cause changes in the world around you or in the subject of activity.
The activity category is researched by philosophers, psychologists, sociologists.
Philosophers study activity as a specific form of active relation to the surrounding world, the content of which constitutes its expedient change and transformation.
Psychologists, based on the postulate of the unity of the psyche and activity, view the latter as a dynamic system of "interactions of the subject with the world in the process of which the appearance and embodiment in the object of the mental image and the realization of the subject's relations mediated by him in the objective reality".
Sociologists study activity as a complex multi-dimensional system - practical and spiritual, as a way of existence and development of social reality, manifestation of social activity, purposeful reflection and transformation of the surrounding world.
All these approaches are united by the fact that human activity in them is regarded as a specific way of man's relation to the world, which is distinguished by the purposefulness of actions, uniting in external unity the external objective activity and activity of consciousness, and is evaluated from the point of view of its significance both for the agent himself , and for others.
The study of activity as a category of ethics allows us to distinguish its moral aspect from all the diversity of people's social practices, and from all kinds of motives (material interests, habits, inclinations, etc.) - specific moral motives: the desire to perform good, the subordination of a sense of debt, the desire to implement certain ideals & quot ;. Therefore, in moral activity in ethics is meant only those actions that are consciously subordinated to certain moral goals.
The concept of & quot; moral activity & quot; in modern ethical literature is often used as a synonym for the concept of "moral behavior", considered as a property of social behavior. Indeed, if the concept of moral activity characterizes purposeful and morally motivated actions, then behavior as a set of human actions that can be subjected to moral assessment is the same conscious, purposeful action in the indissoluble unity of subjective urges and socially significant consequences, practical actions of the individual and its substructures consciousness (knowledge, beliefs, feelings, habits). As human activity is distinguished by the conscious positing of goals and the choice of means to achieve them, the behavior of people includes, as its essential element, the activity of consciousness. Therefore ... it is meaningless to talk about human behavior outside of its connection with the activity of consciousness ... Behavior is not morally ... ".
Behavior - a specific form of human activity, a set of actions in which the personality of a person, the characteristics of his character, temperament, his needs, tastes, reveals his attitude to the surrounding reality; object of legal, moral, other evaluation and regulation; reflection of the level of the moral culture of the individual.Moral behavior as a special form of individual activity, related to the relationships of people, is a set of human actions as elementary, morally meaningful acts of human activity, carried out under conditions of alternative choice, viewed from the point of view of unity of motive and consequences, intentions and deeds, goals and means.
The act is an action, the preceding activity of the moral consciousness, including motivation, motive, intention, choice, decision, and the subsequent activity of the moral consciousness, including a person's self-assessment of his action and attitude to his action on the part surrounding.
The act is a holistic phenomenon, inseparably connecting in itself subjective-personal motives and objectively significant results. Its structure includes subjective motive, socially significant result and external conditions of motive transfer into result, i.e. committing an act. From the point of view of ethics, the most important thing in an action is its moral value.
Motif (motive motivation - motivation) - motivation for activities related to the satisfaction of the subject's needs; a set of external and internal conditions that cause the activity of the subject and determine its direction; an understandable reason underlying the choice of actions and actions of the individual.
Sociologists define motive (motivation) as motivation to activity and activity subject (personality, social group, community of people), associated with the desire to meet certain needs. Psychologists, expanding the boundaries of this concept, explore motive and as aggregate external and internal conditions that cause the activity of the subject and determine its direction, and as the object, motivating and determining the choice of the direction of the activity for which this activity is carried out, and as the realized cause, which underlies the choice of actions and actions of a person.
The moral values developed in a society or microenvironment determine the content of a person's moral motivation, which, in interaction with other human behavior regulators, is one of the most important factors that determine the behavior of a person, his driving force.
Persuasion is a conscious need of the individual, which encourages her to act in accordance with her value orientations.
As the motives can act any element of human consciousness:
- needs (realized need to meet them);
- goals (images of desired performance results);
- settings (state of readiness to act in a certain way);
- social orientations;
- habits (installation of certain forms of behavior);
- beliefs (deeply conscious attitudes and orientations that have become general principles of behavior and determine more particular motives of behavior).
The idea of the unity of consciousness and behavior received a thorough argument and development in the works of domestic psychologists. S. Vygotsky, S. L. Rubinshtein, A. Leontiev, D. N. Uznadze and others. Sociological analysis of social behavior has become the subject of close attention to him from the most prominent representatives of world sociology - P. Sorokin, T. Parsons, R. Merton, R. Darendorf and others.
Therefore, human behavior can be analyzed only in connection with the activities of his consciousness.
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