6.1.5. Behaviorism as a pedagogical concept
Behaviorism is a psychological trend that encourages learning not of consciousness but behavior of a person. The person in the concept of behaviorism is understood primarily as a reacting, learning entity programmed to one or another of the reactions, actions, behavior (J. Watson, B. Skipper, C. Hull, E. Tolman, etc.).
The main idea of behaviorism as a psychological and pedagogical concept is that the child's behavior is a controlled process. An important role in the organization and implementation of the process of education and training is played by the idea of algorithmic learning.
In the UK, the problem of managing learning outcomes is solved by setting goals for educational work for a year, a month, by forecasting the results of different levels at each stage of the work. Each structural element of the content of the program can be learned at various levels of complexity:
- the first level - the reproductive level of training and education, the reproduction of information from memory;
- second level - the level of interpretive activity, including detection of missing elements, selection of characteristic elements, detection of relationships between elements, between elements and the whole;
- the third level - the search level, including analysis and synthesis, the development of an algorithm for solving problem problems.
Accordingly, teachers are faced with the task of predicting at the beginning of the year a certain number of elements of the content of the program, which can be learned only at the first and second levels, and those that can be learned only at the third level. Naturally, the latter determine the main theme and content of all activities with children, as they must pass from the first to the third level of learning in the academic year. At the same time, educators are allowed to deviate from the plan, taking into account the individual approach to children, the actual interests and mood of the pupils.
The idea of algorithmization dictates its requirements to the structure of training sessions with children. For example, B. Bloom in the "Taxonomy of Learning Objectives" (USA), the whole structure of classes builds around key words and phrases that carry the main semantic load on the class, create an installation for inclusion in it, switch to another type of activity and contribute to the activation of the thinking processes of the child or a group of children. B. Bloom identifies several such groups:
1) the formulations of tasks aimed at activating cognition: "correlate", "list", "tell", "formulate", "install", "describe & quot; and so on;
2) the formulations of tasks aimed at activating the analysis : "decompose into components", "explain the reasons", "compare", "lay out in order", "classify"; & quot; explain how and why & quot; and so on;
3) the formulation of tasks aimed at activating the synthesis: "develop a new kind of product", "create", "come up with", "what happens if ..." & quot; come up with another option & quot ;, & quot; is there any other reason & quot; and so on;
4) the formulation of tasks aimed at activating understanding : "in your own words," describe how you feel about ... "," summarize "," show the relationship " ;, & quot; explain the meaning of & quot; and so on;
5) the formulation of tasks aimed at activating the application: & quot; demonstrate & quot ;, "show how ...", "explain the purpose of the application", "use this to solve the & quot; ; and so on;
6) the wording of the tasks aimed at activating the assessment : "set the norms", "select and select", "weigh the possibilities", "tell criticisms"; & quot; select what you like best & quot ;; what do you think about ... & quot; and so on
In the pedagogical process, focused on the implementation of ideas of behaviorism, electronic computing is widely used. For example, 95% of educational institutions in the United States have a computer. Computer programs are actively used in teaching children the basics of numeracy and numeracy. For toddlers special "quoting typewriters" are created, which can simultaneously teach them to read and print. At first the child presses keys, and the machine prints letters. Then the machine calls, and the child should press the corresponding key. In this case, the device jams all keys except the one you are looking for.
How can we briefly define the essence of the learning process in this system? According to the behaviorists opinion, it is necessary to train a child in order to organize events in his environment in such a way that the desired behavior (intellectual, motor, etc.) appeared and was reinforced immediately. In order to cause a certain behavior, i.e. to achieve the given effect of education and training, it is necessary to choose effective incentives and learn how to apply them correctly (computer training, ideas for schematization and programmed instruction, etc.).
"Children are a product of training and the environment", - this is the basic principle of educators-behaviorists. In particular, this is the opinion of the most famous pedagogue - the author of the methodology of "talent education", Shinichi (Shinichi) Suzuki. Abroad, the well-known program is the development of the abilities of children in a different age group (from 3.5 to 5 years).
We list the principles of work on the program.
1. Patience and repetition:
• We must learn to develop talent in the course of education and upbringing;
• It is necessary to understand that talent, whether in the field of music or in other spheres of human activity, is not inherited;
• You can not bring up qualities that are not in the environment.
Here is an example from Suzuki's work:
In one book, I once read how the ninjas learned to jump high. One of the methods was as follows: "Plant the hemp seed in the ground and take care of it. When it sprouts, every day jump over it & quot ;. This method allows you to concentrate on your actions and gives an incentive to implement them.
Hemp grows fast. If you observe this process every day, then it is not easy to notice, but the plant extends every hour and without stops. If you jump through it every day, then the skill will gradually grow with the growth of cannabis. But if a person sees hemp only a month or two after the appearance of the sprout, then it will be too high for him. In the absence of training during this period, the attempt will fail. If you train daily, then you can easily make this jump.
2. It all starts with the game.
& quot; Starting any training is necessary with the game, and the resulting joyful mood will lead the child in the right direction. This is our methodology, "writes S. Suzuki" Raised with Love: A Classical Approach to the Education of Talents. "
3. Development should be oriented towards the upbringing of a person.
Development is based on the following:
1) Activation of the motor and musical-rhythmic abilities of children through active listening and repetition (all auditory material that is learned, accompanied by movements and actions of children, combined with assignments for distribution of attention and coordination);
2) the method of developing intelligence through the activation of the following individual opportunities:
- Perceptions (using Montessori material on sensory development of children, in addition, special exercises are introduced to develop attention and observation);
- memory (in use, children learn 170-180 haiku - three-line poems, special attention is paid to the development of motor, graphic-graphic (based on drawing and calligraphy) and musical memory) pupils
3) the method of early development of musical abilities of children (in particular, this is taught by the program of listening to music and learning to play the violin);
4) the formation of aesthetic taste and attitude to the world on the basis of appropriation by pupils of a system of national and universal values.
Recording for training in kindergartens by this method is 3 years before the birth of the child. However, it is very difficult to create such a complex system. Most often, the authors confine themselves to the development of partial methods for the early development of children. Behaviorists do it quite well: they are aimed at a specific result.
This also applies to the formation of moral behavior of children. In behaviorism, any psychological problem arising in the course of interaction with a child is seen as the absence of necessary behavioral reactions on his part.
Stages of the formation of socially positive behavior can be represented as follows:
Stage 1 - During the interviews and the creation of special game situations, the definition of behavioral symptoms from which they want to rid the child (fears, aggression, etc.);
Stage 2 - identification of those impacts that can act as reinforcements (ready-made behavior stereotypes, incentives that contribute to the rapid breakdown of established stereotypes, incentives based on prolonged frustration of any child's needs, causing unwanted behavior);
Stage 3 - development of desired behavior (in individual or group form of work). The child is offered positive and negative behaviors, the first of which is encouraged. At the same time, the smallest step of the child is reinforced, using all kinds of positive reinforcements;
Stage 4 - consolidate the skills obtained, develop stereotypes of behavior in other situations and test them in life. With residual outbursts of negative behavior, it is not worth fighting, because punishment teaches worse than rewarding. It is easier for a teacher to develop useful adaptive skills in a child with which this behavior is incompatible.
Based on an understanding of the basic mechanisms of pedagogical influence of an adult on a child, how can one formulate the main goal of preschool education in behaviorism? The main goal of education is the education of a managed individual, i.e. the future citizen of his country, who has a sense of responsibility for his behavior. It is believed that this is the most important condition for the viability of the social system. Other important qualities that need to be raised in children from an early age include organization, discipline, efficiency and enterprise. In Germany, for example, elementary school back in the XIX century. was considered a system of upbringing of "loyal subjects", so together with the children of preschool and early school age, the "people" were brought up, which, like the children, it was necessary to teach the basics of literacy and "discipline."
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