As a branch of linguistics, phraseology is qualified in various ways: phraseologists recognize it as an independent section; lexicologists are usually considered a subsystem of vocabulary, since the word and phraseological unit have common system properties. Phraseology < phrasis - expression + logos - teaching) is a section of the science of language that studies stable combinations of words of various types.
Phraseological (phraseological unit - FE) is a complex interdisciplinary unit, in the form and meaning of which interact units of different levels: phonetic, word-formative, lexical, semantic and grammatical. Phraseologism combines the signs of the word and specific, differential signs. Like the word, the FE can be single-valued and multivalued; can enter into homonymous, synonymous, antonymic paradigms; can be combined with one or another set of words. Consequently, like a word, FE has three subsystems:
1) epidigmatic - historically formed derivation - multi-valuedness (by analogy with the word - phraseological and semantic variants - FSV);
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2) paradigmatic - the opposition of the value of one FE to the value of another FE;
3) syntagmatics d - the compatibility of the FE with words or other FE.
Phraseology as an indirectly-nominative unit of language
Like a word, phraseology is a unit of nomination. But unlike the word - single naming, a phraseological unit is a composite, integral nomination that has an indirectly nominative meaning. This value is created by a common metaphorical or metonymic reinterpretation of the word-components included in the FE, which usually leads to the evaluative, expressive and figurative nature of the semantics of the FE and emphasizes the idiomatic, portable-integral designation of some phenomenon of reality: What kind of fog i> ('confused someone')/ Dismember , who wants (G.); Anton Ivanovich felt like a fish in the water ('freely, at ease') (M.-S.).
The differential signs of a phraseological unit are:
1) indirectly nominative value;
2) socially fixed ratio of the semantic content and lexico-grammatical composition of the FE;
3) the consistency of reproduction of the same component composition:
4) separatelyform of the FE (phraseology consists of at least two word-components).
There is a wide and narrow understanding of the phraseological composition of the language. In a broad sense, the phraseology of the phraseology refers to phraseology:
1) and d and gm are stable formations, the value of which is indivisible by the meanings of the word-components that make up them; they function in the sentence as the equivalent of a single word: hang noodles on the ears 'deceive', give a sibling 'run away';
2) phraseological findings, in which only one of the components has a phraseologically related meaning, which creates syntactic and semantic subdivision of the FE: bosom friend , broom forehead ( knee , nose);
3) voices - stable sayings, grammatically and rhythmically organized, in which the practical experience of the people and its evaluation are embodied and which appear in the speech as independent judgments: What fell from the cart i>, it's gone; You like to ride , love to carry sleds; Poverty is not a vice;
4) sayings - stable sayings that figuratively determine the fact of reality and receive a specific meaning in the text: look - give a ruble; The Lord will not give - the pig will not eat;
5) winged words (according to NM Shansky - phraseological expressions) - stable sayings that appeared in the language from a specific literary source, or fixed in use statements of historical figures: And Vaska listens and eats (Cr.); To the village of Grandfather (Ch.); To be or not to be? (W. Shakespeare);
6) The most important stamps - functioning in the speech are stable formulas: happiness in a personal life , all good , execute and overfulfill. Combine these combinations common for -
signs: reproducibility in speech and semantic structural stability.
Phraseology in a narrow sense includes phraseological cohesion and unity, that is, class idioms. Idioms are a structural-semantic core of phraseology. Idiomaticity is the semantic indecomposability of the phraseological unit to the meanings of the word-components, all constituents, and as a consequence - the inability to deduce the meaning of the phraseological unit as a whole from the meanings of its parts: neither fish nor meat 'does not stand out, '; fly upside down 'crumble, die' (phraseological mergers).
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Idioms with a motivated meaning (phraseological unity) have an internal form. The internal form of a phraseological unit is the initial denotative value resulting from the sum of the real values of the word-components: lie on the stove, sit on the stove, words - SSS); count the raven 'idle' (FE) - count the crow (CCC).
The semantic classification of phraseological units is based on the structure of their meaning: idiomatic FE, motivation, presence/absence of internal form and severity of connotations.
There are three types of phraseological units: phraseological fusion, phraseological unity and phraseological combinations. The first two types are part of the idiom.
Semantically, and the signs of phraseological fusion are: idiomatic and not motivated meaning. The lexical features include the presence of archaisms and historicisms: "to beat the buckets," "to sharpen the balusters," on the days, , the mother's massacre. Grammaticheskie signs are presented:
1) archaic morphological forms: build a house on fox, many summers ;
2) obsolete syntactic links: joke say (the infinitive controls the nominative case), rest in Bose ('die');
3) syntactic integrity (the fusion acts as one member of the sentence).
Semantic features of phraseological unity
1) in idiomatic;
2) in the reasoning of the value of the FE by the meaning of the word-components;
3) in the existence of an internal form;
4) in the expressive-emotional color of the FE.
Lexical signs are represented by homonymous
the relations of FE and CCC, which leads to a revival of the phraseological image; cf .: FE crack the wood 'make rough mistakes' and CCC crack the wood ; "Surrender to your will" and CCC sit on your head. The grammatical sign of phraseological unity is the integrity, syntactic indecomposability of the nomination (unity acts as one member of the sentence). /p>
The semantic property of a phraseological combination is the presence of one component with a phraseological meaning that can be replaced by a synonym - a word with a free value: a sound sleep ( deep = deep , continuous ); blunt the head (downturn = omit). Grammatics and signs of a phraseological combination are:
1) connectivity, not the freedom of word compatibility with phraseological meaning with other words (usually the scale of compatibility covers up to 8-10 words); compare: break into ambition - single combinability, but affect the honor ( pride , interests , whose either the name , vanity , etc.);
2) the analyticity of the nomination (a word with a phraseologically related meaning is an independent member of the sentence): He lowered his head - a simple verbal predicate; A sleepless sleep engulfed everyone - a consistent definition.
The choice of compatibility depends on the semantics of the basic, free word. Metaphorically rethought (personified, zoomorphic, etc.), the associated meaning of the word & quot; adapts & quot; to the meaning of the predominant, free word. For example, thoughts, thoughts, dreams, dreams belong to the world of man, so they sleep , wake , prompt ; or: thoughts, thoughts suppress , oppress, absorb ; you can lose , destroy , break dreams, dreams, thoughts; like a person, dreams, fantasies can be timid, ridiculous, elevated.
Between the phraseological fusion, oneness and combinations, transient phenomena are observed: this is explained by the semantics of the unit and the linguistic, cultural awareness of the native speaker: Indian summer in the meaning of 'short time in early autumn with clear, warm weather' phraseological combination,
in the meaning of the "last flourish in the life of a woman" - a phraseological unity.
In modern Russian phraseology, like words, can be single-valued (monosexic) and polysemantic (polysemic). Between the meanings (phraseological-semantic variants-FSV) of a multi-valued phraseological unit there are relations of metaphor and metonymy, i.e. The same semantic relationships as between the meanings of a polysemantic word. It is believed that many-valued FE are significantly smaller than single-valued ones, but such an assertion is based on the undeveloped nature of the question.
In a multi-valued phraseological unit, chain, radial, and parallel relationships between values are possible. Thus, phraseology grit teeth has three FSVs caused by chain polysemy: 1) "angry, angry, protecting someone.": He has a bit of teeth, , > Try to touch him (Abr.); 2) 'Laugh': They settled on the wall with their tongues and know that they are laughing, they gnaw their teeth-fun (Abr.); 3) 'to sneer': Ignat's teeth grind and people podkovyrivaet ... (Abr.). Values 1 and 2 are connected metaphorically - based on external mimic similarity. Values 2 and 3 are combined by a metonymic relationship - they denote the action and its target orientation.
The development of phraseological polysemy can follow the path of radial polysemy FSV, when all values depend on one, the main one. For example, phraseology playing the fool has five FSVs: 1) "do stupid things, do things wrong": ... He was just pressured by the thought of , that he was making a fool of himself, and in vain he wastes himself with some kind of hope (PP); 2) 'pretend to be stupid, uncomprehending': Will not it be easier not to play a fool on the court (AT); 3) 'idle': You know, , what a life I lived - was fooling . dirty paper ... (Ayr); 4) 'jumble up':
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