What is consciousness, definition of consciousness, the problem of activity, the creative power of consciousness, the structure of consciousness - Philosophy

What is consciousness

Definition of consciousness

Consciousness is one of the forms of manifestation of our soul, while a very substantial form, full of deep content. In life, we often use these concepts as synonyms. However, the concept of & quot; soul & quot; broader than the concept of "consciousness". For example, feelings are a state of the soul, they can not be identified with consciousness. As a synonym for the concept of "soul" we can use the concept of "psyche".

So, consciousness is the highest function of the brain, unique to people and connected with speech, consisting in a generalized and purposeful reflection of reality, in the preliminary mental construction of actions and foreseeing their results, in rational regulation and self control of human behavior.

The problem of activity, the creative power of consciousness

Being an adequate comprehension of reality, consciousness is realized in the form of various kinds of practical and theoretical activity. This realization involves the formulation of an idea, goal or idea. The idea is not only the knowledge of what is, but also the planning of what should be. In other words, the idea is a concept oriented to practical implementation.

Creative activity of consciousness is closely connected with the practical activity of man and with the needs arising under the influence of the external world. Needs, reflected in the head of a person, acquire the nature of the goal. Thus, the goal is an idealized and sought-after human need) such a subjective image of the subject of activity, in the ideal form of which the result of this activity is anticipated. Goals are formed on the basis of the entire aggregate experience of mankind and rise to the highest forms of their manifestation in the form of social, ethical and aesthetic ideals. The capacity for goal-setting is a specifically human ability, constituting a cardinal characteristic of consciousness. It would be an unnecessary luxury if it was deprived of goal-seeking, i.e. the ability of the mental transformation of things in accordance with the needs. Thus, the relationship between the purposeful activity of man and nature is not reduced to mere coincidence. At the heart of the goal-oriented activity of a person is dissatisfaction with the world and the need to change it, to give it the forms necessary for man and society. Consequently, the goals of man are generated by social practice, the objective world and presuppose it.

However, human thought is able not only to reflect directly existing, but also to break away from it. Infinitely diverse objective world with all its colors and forms is, as it were, glowing, reflected in the mirror of our "I" and forming an equally complex, diverse and surprisingly volatile world. In this bizarre realm of the spirit, our own "spiritual space" moves and creates an inquisitive human thought. In the minds of people, there are both true and illusory ideas. Thought and moves on ready-made patterns, and paves new paths, breaking outdated norms. She has a wonderful ability of innovation, creativity.

Structure of consciousness

The concept of & quot; consciousness & quot; is ambiguous. In the broad sense of the word, consciousness means a mental reflection of reality, regardless of whether it is biological or social, sensory or rational, thus emphasizing its relation to matter without revealing the specifics of its structural organization . In the narrow and special meaning, consciousness means not simply a mental state but a higher, actually human form of the mental reflection of reality. Consciousness is structurally organized here, it is an integral system consisting of various elements that are in regularity with each other relations. First of all, in the structure of consciousness, the most prominent are moments such as awareness of things, as well as experiences, ie, a certain relation to the content of what is reflected. The development of consciousness presupposes, first of all, enriching it with new knowledge about the world around him and the person himself. Cognition, awareness of things has different levels, the depth of penetration into the object and the degree of clarity of understanding. Hence the distinction between the ordinary, scientific, philosophical, aesthetic and religious awareness of the world, as well as the sensory and rational levels of consciousness. Sensations, perceptions, representations, concepts, thinking form the core of consciousness, however they do not exhaust its structural completeness: the consciousness includes and the act of attention as its necessary component. It is due to the focus of attention that a certain range of objects is in the focus of consciousness.

Objects, events that affect us cause us not only cognitive images, thoughts, ideas, but also emotional "storms" that make us tremble, worry, fear, cry, admire, love and hate. Cognition and creativity is not a cold-rational, but a passionate search for truth. The richest sphere of the emotional life of the human person includes the actual feelings, which are relations to external influences (pleasure, joy, grief, etc.), moods, or emotional well-being , depressed, etc.), and affects (rage, horror, despair, etc.). Knowledge, due to a certain attitude to the object of cognition, receives a different significance for the individual, which finds its most vivid expression in beliefs: they are imbued with deep and steady feelings, and this is an indicator of the special value for a person of knowledge that has become his life guide. Feelings, emotions are components of the structure of consciousness. The process of cognition affects all aspects of the inner world of man-needs, interests, feelings, will. The true cognition of a person in the world contains both a figurative reflection and feelings.

Consciousness is not limited to cognitive processes, focus on the object (attention), emotional sphere. Our intentions are realized through the efforts of will. However, consciousness is not the sum of the set of its constituent elements, but their integral, complex-structured whole. At the heart of all mental processes is memory - the ability of the brain to capture, store and reproduce information. The driving force of people's behavior and consciousness is the need - a state of instability of the organism as a system, its needs in something./i> This state causes attraction, search activity, strong-willed effort. When the need finds its object, the attraction goes into a will, a desire. Will is a fact of consciousness, its practical detection. Will is not only the ability to want, to wish, it is a mental process, expressed in actions aimed at satisfying the need. Qualitative changes in the nature of needs are the main milestones in the evolution of the psyche from its elementary forms to the higher level of consciousness . To regulate behavior in animals, there are no grounds other than biological utility. A person has socially conditioned needs and demands for life and completely new ideal motive forces - a thirst for knowledge of the truth, a sense of beauty, moral pleasure, the desire to perform a feat for the good of the people, humanity, etc. The cause of the deed lies in the needs of people. The goal is a need reflected in the mind. But the need is not the ultimate, but the derivative cause of human actions. In the emergence of needs, aspirations and desires, the determining role is played by the external world. It determines the behavior of people not only directly, but also indirectly - through a complex network of past actions, thoughts, feelings, and not only their own, but also other people.

Human feelings are a fact of consciousness, a reflection of the world and an expression of a person's attitude toward satisfaction or dissatisfaction of his needs, interests, conformity or inconsistency with anything to his ideas and concepts. Nothing in our consciousness is accomplished outside emotional coloring, which has a huge vital meaning. The emotional stimulus makes us organize our thoughts and actions to achieve a certain goal.

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