Basic Separation Operations
Separative operations include cutting, punching, naborubku. Use two methods of cutting - one- and two-sided.
The first is used for forging small-sized blanks (Figure 9.69). The ax is embedded in the workpiece so that there is a jumper h, equal to the thickness of the ax's axle a under the blade (Figure 9.69, a). Then the workpiece is rotated at 180 °, against the notch set "square" and sharply hit it (Figure 9.69, b).
Fig. 9.69. The cut scheme on one side:
1 - a snipe
The cut pieces of the workpiece, as a rule, do not have burrs. The waste obtained by cutting (cut-off jumper) is called trimming .
The cut from both sides is used for the preparation of large sections using axes of small height (Figure 9.70).
Fig. 9.70. Scheme of the cut from both sides ( a ) and deburring 1 after the cut (b):
I - an ax; II - square
Punching - the formation of a hole or groove in the workpiece by shearing with the removal of a part of the metal into the waste (Figure 9.71).
Fig. 9.71. Punching scheme on the backing ring:
a - before punching; b - after punching; 1 - the firing pin; 2 - piercer; 3 - the ring; 4 - stand; 5 - otter
Nadrubka - the formation of depressions on the workpiece due to the introduction of the forging tool on the incomplete thickness of the workpiece (Figure 9.72).
Fig. 9.72. Scheme of nicking formation
The form-changing operations during forging include: rolling, sediment, disembarkation, broaching, transferring, stripping, ironing, flashing, rolling.
Running - giving the workpiece a cylindrical shape by deforming it alternating with rotations around its axis.
Draft - decrease the height of the workpiece as its cross-sectional area increases.
Disembarkation - the draft of the part of the workpiece.
Forging Forging is the elongation of a piece or part thereof by decreasing the cross-sectional area.
Transfer - shifts one part of the workpiece relative to the other while preserving the parallelism of the axes or the flat part of the workpiece.
Distillation - increase the dimensions in the workpiece plan or part of it by reducing the thickness.
Smoothing - eliminating unevenness of the workpiece surface by successive local deformation.
Firmware - the formation of the through cavity in the workpiece due to free displacement of the metal.
Roll-out - increase the diameter of the circular workpiece by reducing the thickness of the walls by successively applying the tool.Forging welding refers to forging operations whereby the individual parts or ends of a single preform after a pre-set of metal are first combined with weak and then strong impacts, with a workpiece temperature of 1300-1500 ° C.
Tool for forging work
A tool that transfers impact from a hammer to a workpiece and is used to perform forging operations is called a bump . Depending on the type of technological equipment distinguish hammer and press picks.
Hammerheads pins (Figure 9.73) are usually manufactured in monolithic and fixed in a groove such as the "swallowtail" wedges and breadcrumbs.
Fig. 9.73. Hammerheads:
1, 3 - wedges; 2, 4 - crackers
Pressing strikers (Figure 9.74) are fastened to the table (bottom) and press traverse (top) with bolts and less often by a wedge "swallowtail".
Fig. 9.74. Press bugs:
and - fastening with bolts; b - with a wedge
For large presses and dies of large overall dimensions, a combined klinoboltovoy mount. When working on presses, the composite structure of the strikers has proved to be well established. It allows you to replace a worn out small part of the strikers. In addition, the specialization capabilities of the tool are being expanded, which is made quick-change. The bolts are bolted to the press table with bolts, and its insert (flat or cut-out) with a wedge.
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