Communicative pedagogical technologies
Communicative pedagogical technologies resist the problem-search approach. In these technologies, the trainee is regarded as a conscious, equal participant in the educational process. The essence of communicative technologies is the orientation toward interpersonal interaction in the educational process, the humanization of pedagogical influence. These technologies suggest:
- the rejection of authoritarian pedagogy;
- the adaptation of the school to students, providing an atmosphere of comfort;
- the differentiation of learning activities;
- faith in the student, his strengths, opportunities;
- ensuring success in education and upbringing.
In pedagogical practice, the concept of "dialogue" is increasingly used today. However, there has been a trend towards a simplified interpretation of this term. Often it is a question of everyone participating in the discussion of the topic of the lesson. It turns out that dialogue is the exchange of cues, judgments, emotional states. After the works of Bakhtin this interpretation seems blasphemous, because the philosophical idea of dialogue has a much deeper content. In the work "Problems of Dostoevsky's poetics" Bakhtin wrote: "Man will never find fullness only in himself." This is not at all about the fact that everyone depends on the other, not on the social formula. This thought is an opening. In it, the key is primarily to the very human being, which is fragile, capricious, easily deformable. To save yourself, to feel the hollowness of being, you must absorb the living, agitated voices of others.
Human being is fragile, but its resilience depends on mental and mental responsiveness. Hear the voice! Far, perhaps inaudible. But I need it personally, like the message of another equal consciousness. Go out into the world of another human universe. To feel an extraneous voice as a special point of view of the world and of yourself, as the being of another person.
However, it's not just that a person does not find the fullness only in himself. To understand the personal wealth of a person can only be revealed in it the potential of this sociability. Bakhtin's position is alien to monologism (one person argues, argues, one is reverent, others are reverently silent). In the thinker, who brought us the atmosphere of a benevolent dispute of "voices", very different, often overlook his sharp dispute with himself, do not delve into the logic of his struggle with himself. So it turned out that in the dialogue itself, polyphony was lost, polyphony. We appreciate Bakhtin for the courageous proclamation of the inexhaustibly solid dignity of every human personal "voice." In discussions on any topic, a thirst for eternal meaning leads to a participatory harmony.
Analysis of production situations
The direct relationship between the success of managerial activity and the intellect of the leader seems, at first glance, to be self-evident. "It is this view, which in reality is illusory, for a very long time actually blocked not only research in this field, but also the very formulation of the question of the connection of the intellect with the effectiveness of managerial activity." The connection of the intellect with the effectiveness of managerial activity is not direct, but multifaceted. The effectiveness of the activity, in addition to the intellect, is influenced - and often more strongly - by many other reasons. The very intellect influences the activity through a set of intermediate variables. That is why any production situation needs a comprehensive analysis.
The general theory of systems was designed and created as an interdisciplinary theory, the subject of which are general patterns of the functioning of complex, complex objects. Effective situational analysis is possible on the basis of the following subsystems: the subsystem of goals; subsystem of human resources; subsystem of technology; subsystem of management. The Aston program (named for Aston, UK, where the research team works) contributed to the system analysis of organization theory, thanks to a combination of empirical research methods, hypotheses from the field of psychology with concepts of organization theory, works in the field of sociology and economics. The research in Astronomy strengthened the position of the systems approach in the analysis of management processes and outlined ways to combine traditional research in management, the school of human relations, situational theory on the basis of systemic views and representations.
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