MARKETING RESEARCH IN THE STRUCTURE OF MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM
As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:
• the purpose of marketing research in the information system of marketing research;
• the essence of statistical and economic-mathematical methods;
• the main methods of analyzing information, the scale of scales in marketing research;
• the concept and essence of marketing information distribution series;
• mean values in the statistical sense;
be able to
• prepare data for marketing information;
• perform statistical adjustment of data and grouping of data;
• use mean values in the statistical sense;
• methods of summarizing and grouping data;
• technology for determining statistical indicators when analyzing marketing information using Microsoft Excel.
Methods of processing marketing research data
Marketing research is structured in a hierarchical manner (Figure 5.1).
Fig. 5.1. The structure of resolving market problems through market research
Any market problem is inherently complex, which determines a lot of private goals of achievement and, accordingly, providing tasks. At the same time, the problem can give rise to many alternatives (private goals) for solving it and realizing the tasks. The formulation of the problem determines the choice of the method for solving it. Tasks are divided into general and private. The general objective is related to the choice of a particular research method (for example, the estimation of market capacity can be performed by a variety of research methods); private tasks are more diverse and numerous than common ones, they define a specific method of marketing research.
The processing of market research data is carried out in the marketing research information system, which is an integral part of the IIA structure, and is based on information obtained as a result of research into specific areas of marketing activities. The most important types of marketing research are: market research and its conjuncture, the positioning of competitors, the policy tools of the whole complex "4R" etc. The purpose of marketing research in the system of marketing research information is to identify scientifically grounded data on specific problems of marketing activities necessary to make informed decisions by the customer. The processing of market research data in IIAs should be carried out continuously or periodically, but as new problems arise, using special methods of collecting and processing the collected data.
When analyzing information about the market, the same methods are used as in the analysis of any economic information. They can be divided into two groups: statistical and economical.
To statistical include tabular method, calculation of average and relative indicators, construction and processing of dynamic series, summary, grouping, graphical, index and variance analysis. From economic-mathematical it is necessary to note the correlation and regression methods of analysis.
In marketing research, the following methods of information analysis are widely used.
Benchmarking is a technology through which the best business processes of competing companies are identified and analyzed to improve and optimize their own. This is an alternative method of strategic planning, not from what has been achieved, but according to competitors' indicators, which includes three stages: industry analysis; analysis of competitors; development of strategy.
Price & amp; Distribution (a type of retail audit) is a quantitative study conducted at retail outlets to obtain data on the assortment, prices, representation of trademarks entering the product category under study.
SWOT Analysis is a two-part model for assessing the business environment of an enterprise. The first part is aimed at studying strategic alternatives: external opportunities (positive moments) and threats (negative moments), while the second part is aimed at assessing the potential of the enterprise: its strengths and weaknesses.
PEST analysis is a model for analyzing the company's macro environment. It includes an analysis of the following factors: political, economic, social and technological.The model of M. Porter (a model of the five forces of competition) is a model that explains the interaction and influence on the company of the following factors (forces):
• the threat of new competitors;
• the threat of the appearance of substitute goods;
• The ability of suppliers of components to bargain;
• The ability of buyers to bargain;
• rivalry of already existing competitors among themselves.
The method of similar markets involves determining the volume of the market by analyzing data on similar markets, having a similar structure and growth rates.
Ansoff-matrix - a strategic model based on: internal evaluation of the firm; assessment of external opportunities; formulation of goals and objectives; choice of portfolio and competitive strategies; creation of alternative projects, their selection and implementation.
ABC-analysis - classification of objects of research on certain parameters, in which objects are divided into three categories: A - the most valuable (important); B - intermediate; C - the least valuable. Objects of research can be suppliers, distributors, key customers, etc. In the case of suppliers, this research method is called the XYZ analysis.
Portfolio analysis is a tool that allows you to evaluate the activities of an enterprise for the purpose of investing in the most profitable areas and reducing (stopping) investments in inefficient projects. The main method of portfolio analysis is the construction of matrices. The most well-known matrix BCG is based on the product life cycle model and product separation on the "product-problem" (the stage of entering the market), & quot; star product & quot; (a growing product), the "milk cow" (mature product) and & quot; dog & quot; (recession). Matrices GE/McKinsey, Shell/DPM are more complex versions BCG, taking into account additional indicators of market attractiveness and competitiveness. The difference between the ADL/LC model is that a single business of any corporation is analyzed in accordance with the concept of the life cycle of the industry. Matrix Hofer/Schendel involves obtaining certain strategic conclusions based on market analysis.
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