Turning machines perform roughing, semi-finishing and finishing of workpiece surfaces.
For technological purposes, the lathe lathe machines are divided into screw-cutting lathes (Figure 11.13), turret-turret (Figure 11.14), carousel (Figure 11.15), multi-cutter, single and multi-spindle automata (Figure 11.16) and others .
Fig. 11.13. Universal Lathe
Fig. 11.14. Lathe quarrying machine
Fig. 11.15. Vertical Lathes:
and - single column: b - two-column
Fig. 11.16. Multi-spindle turret (shown without protective covers)
On vertical semiautomatic machines and lathe-boring machines, billets have a vertical axis of rotation, on other types of lathes - horizontal.
Let us dwell briefly on the description of the features of the basic types of machines.
Universal screw-cutting lathes (Figure 11.17). The structure of the screw-cutting lathe includes the following main units and mechanisms: feed box 1; speed box control panel 2; front headstock with spindle 3; rotary four-position tool holder 5; longitudinal caliper 6 ; transverse carriage providing transverse feeding and feeding at an angle to the axis of rotation of the workpiece 7; an apron 8 (in it are mounted mechanisms that transform the rotational motion of the running roller and screw into translational motion); 9. All knots and mechanisms are assembled on a rigid bed 10. The feed mechanism informs the movement of the support on four kinematic chains: screw cutting, longitudinal and transverse feeds, rapid movement. The mechanism of the feed box allows you to get the necessary speed of longitudinal and transverse feeds. The spindle of the headstock is completed, as a rule, with a cam holder 4, in which the workpiece is set and fixed. The tailstock 9 is designed to support machined workpieces of low rigidity, as well as to fasten the cutting tool: drills, countersinks, reamers, taps. The design provides for the possibility of transverse displacement, which allows you to handle gently sloping cones.
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Fig. 11.17. Main components of the lathe
Lathe turret lathes
Lathe turret lathes (see Figure 11.14) are designed for manufacturing complex shape parts from rods and piece blanks that require a variety of operations to be processed sequentially. They differ from screw-cutting by the absence of a tailstock, instead of which a turret caliper is installed, and on it a turret of a vertical, horizontal or inclined arrangement is mounted. In turret lathes there are no running screws. At the nests of the turret head, it is possible to fasten simultaneously cutters, drills, countersinks, reamers, taps, dies, etc.
The turret machines are usually mechanized by clamping, feeding the bar and moving the calipers. Modern machines (see Figure 11.16) have a significant level of automation and functionality. It is most rational to apply them in batch production.
Vertical turning machines
Turning lathes are usually used for processing concentric parts with large dimensions and weight, the installation and fixing of which on vertical scales and in cartridges of horizontal lathes are difficult or impossible. An example of such a detail is shown in Fig. 11.18.
Fig. 11.18. Processing of a car wheel on a carousel:
1 - the wheel; 2 - adaptation; 3 - faceplate
The workpiece is fastened to the faceplate using bolts, staples or gons.
On the lathe-carrousel machines, the faceplate performs a rotational main movement around the vertical axis with a frequency within the range of 1.6-80 min-1. The movement of the flow is communicated to the instrument.
The machines produce two types: single-column (see Figure 11.15, a) - with a faceplate diameter of up to 1.6 m and double-column (see Figure 11.15, b), on which it is possible to process parts with a diameter of up to 24 m. The machines are controlled from the control panel.
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