Principle of complementarity, The principle of simplicity - Philosophy of Science

The principle of additionality

Here we should identify with SV Illarionov, who argued that Bohr's attempts to establish the principle of complementarity as a general methodological position did not receive any response in Western philosophy of science ... In the Soviet philosophy, Bohr's additionality principle found a sufficiently strong response in dialectical materialism ... Several collective works were published in which Bohr's ideas were propagated, developed and disseminated from quantum mechanics to other fields of science. But this splash was rather short-lived and did not lead to serious results ... But the most important thing is that no theory, created after 1930, used in its construction the principle of complementarity & quot; [14, p. 214-215]. However, this principle had an important historical significance, performing an auxiliary (largely therapeutic) function - helping the Copenhagen fight off the attacks of anti-Copenhageners in the face of Einstein, Schrödinger, etc. (see paragraph 15.4), stimulated Heisenberg in his derivation of the uncertainty relations ([24, . 115-127J).

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The principle of simplicity

With. V. Illarionov points to several different interpretations of the notion of simplicity.

& quot; Ontological & quot; The interpretation of the concept of simplicity comes from the thesis "the nature is arranged simply". From it emanated Galileo and Newton and many other physics of the classical period. & quot; Nonclassical & quot; the era of the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics rather characterizes the statement of the physicist Academician LB Okun: "Physics in order to become simpler, should become less trivial. Simple simplicity will not be & quot; [14, p. 162]. It seems to us that this statement corresponds to the transition described in subparagraph 9.1.3 in the second half of the 19th century. to less visible PIO. But with this in mind, the ontological principle of simplicity continues to work, at least in the construction of theories of phenomena, i.e. at the SIV level.

& quot; Descriptive & quot; the interpretation of simplicity, which Illarionov associates with positivism and neopositivism, proclaims the simplicity of the mathematical description: the equation of motion must be simple. This logic can be traced back to Galileo (evenly accelerated motion as the easiest accelerated movement (see subparagraph 9.1.1)) and Newton (force as the cause of the change in speed is proportional to the acceleration). As SV Illarionov rightly points out, "physics ..." does not like "equations (differential <-> AL ) of high (higher than second) orders & quot; . The same can be said about the nonlinearity of the equations - the researchers seek to use power nonlinearities with the lowest possible degree of physical considerations. As a rule, these physical considerations are related to the symmetry of the & quot; [14, p. 159, 160].

Another interpretation of the principle of simplicity goes back to the Occam Razor & quot ;. In modern science, according to Illarionov, the "Occam's razor" there is a requirement that each phenomenon can not be explained by its own separate hypothesis & quot; and the criterion "of two theories equally well describing experimental data, the one that is based on fewer independent hypotheses" is preferable. True, in the second case, "Occam's razor needs to be waved carefully!" (LB Okun ') [14, p. 156, 161]. Note that this is a question of constructing theories of phenomena, i.e. on the construction of SIV.

The principle of simplicity Illarionov opposes the "Dirac principle", which reads: "Everything that is not forbidden - is allowed". If the principle of simplicity directs researchers to reduce the number of independent hypotheses, then the "Dirac principle" (or Dirac-Gell-Mann) focuses rather on the multiplication of such ... Dirac hypotheses ultimately did not lead to a positive result, although they stimulated the activity and theorists, and experimenters & quot; [14, p. 163]. We believe that the fact is that Dirac and Gell-Mann applied them to the creation of new PIOs, activities that, as mentioned in subparagraph 9.1.2, are very different from the construction of SIS.

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