Survey of the marketing environment of a hotel enterprise
Goals, directions and methods of analysis of the external environment
The external environment is a source of opportunities and problems for the hotel company. To identify them, it is necessary to consider the organization as an open system that is affected by the external environment. The external environment for an enterprise can be conditionally divided into two parts:
• remote environment (macro environment), including the government, the economic situation in the country and industry, natural factors, scientific and technological progress, culture and socio-demographic environment;/p>
• Industry , short-term environment (microenvironment), consisting of shareholders, suppliers, buyers, competitors, creditors, trade unions, etc.
Since all listed components of the external environment are characterized by a variety of factors, the hotel management should identify only those that have the greatest impact on the organization and conduct their analysis in terms of opportunities and existing threats.
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Opportunities that open up to the hotel represent positive trends and external events that can lead to increased sales and profits. In turn, threats are determined by negative factors, the lack of response to which can lead to serious difficulties in the work of the enterprise.
The most significant factors of the external environment will be called strategic factors. Since the external environment is characterized, as mentioned above, by a set of constantly changing factors, their appearance and the power of the impact on the hotel will be of a probabilistic nature. Therefore, it is expedient for the company's management to take into account only those
of them, which are highly likely to appear and influence the operation of the hotel.
There are various methods for analyzing the external environment, including:
1) macro environment analysis methods , based on a grouping of factors, including:
• PEST-analysis (or STER-analysis), taking into account four groups of factors;
• STEP analysis that takes into account five groups of factors;
• TEMRIEB - An analysis that takes into account seven factor groups;
• Methods that are adjacent to the listed types of analysis and reflect the specifics of the tourism industry and the hotel industry;
2) microenvironment analysis methods using:
• M. Porter's competition analysis models (with an assessment of potential competitors, industry competitors, competitors from other industries, suppliers, buyers);
• the allocation of strategic groups of competitors and the construction of a positioning map;
• 51TH analysis (the first part of it dealing with the identification of factors characterizing the strengths and weaknesses of the organization);
• Other approaches based on the use of techniques from other areas of knowledge (for example, using sociological research methods).
Consider some methods for analyzing the macro environment in more detail.
1. REST analysis. The P & p; 5T analysis (5V & pound; P-analysis) method is the simplest. Four groups of factors are used. The boundaries between the groups are not rigid. The groups of factors considered in the method are political-legal (P), economic (& pound;), socio-cultural (5), technological (D) .
2. Sterealysis Differs from the PEST analysis by adding an environmental group of factors (& pound;) G
3. 7? MPa? 5-apazis. It differs from 5% of the pound and is due to the presence of market factors. The groups of factors considered in the method are technological ( T ), economic (& pound;), market situation (M), political (R), legislative (& pound;), environmental (& pound;), social (5).
4. The method described in the tutorial "Marketing. Hospitality. Tourism & quot; (author - F. Kotler and others). Only factors related to competitors are considered in detail, as well as demographic factors that reflect the specifics of the tourism and hotel business. Groups of factors considered in the method are competitive, demographic, economic, natural, technological, political, cultural .
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5. The method described in the textbook "Hotel Marketing: Theory and Practice, Maximizing Sales & quot; (author - AL Lesnik). It differs from REBT -analysis of the presence of demographic, socio-cultural and national factors; reflect the specificity of the tourist and hotel business. The groups of factors considered in the method are economic, scientific and technical, state-political, environmental, demographic, socio-cultural and national [471.
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