TECHNOLOGIES OF CONTROL OF COMMUNICATION PROCESSES IN POLITICAL CAMPAIGN
After studying the material of the chapter, the student must:
• the basic principles of organizing information promotion in a political campaign;
• the importance of the central theme of a political campaign;
• Principles of developing the concept of persuasive communication
be able to
• determine the meaning of the content of messages in a political campaign;
• formulate the central theme of the political campaign;
• make up a set of storylines that are adequate to the central theme of the political campaign;
• The skills of developing the concept of persuasive communication in a political campaign.
Political campaign as a communication process
Opening in Ch. 4 the content of the political campaign, we pointed to the enormous importance of communication processes linking all its participants. Without well-established information links, the subject of political management will not be able to influence those people on whom the achievement of the political goals set by them depends. In fact, the political campaign unfolds in time and space as a purposefully built communication process, where the communicator becomes the subject of management, and the recipient, the recipient of information, is the object of administrative influence.
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In a simplified form, a political campaign as a communication process can be presented in the following form (see Figure 7.1).
Fig. 7.1. Model of communicative interaction
As the sender of information, or communicator, the subject of management of political campaign acts. It is he who is the actor who creates various types of information in order to influence the motivation of citizens who are the target of the impact and are transformed in the communication process into recipients of information, or recipients. In Fig. 7.1 indicates the sequence of basic operations performed by the sender and receiver of information. How the incoming information is processed in the mind of a person, we considered in Ch. 5, so in this case, we confine ourselves to describing the actions of the communicator. To do this, consider the logical sequence of the efforts he makes, expressed in our scheme by the corresponding stages.
Awareness, definition, clarification of information, which is supposed to be broadcast. The choice of messages, messages in a political campaign is not arbitrary, it is completely subordinated to the tasks of managing motivation. If the task is to form a positive attitude towards a particular political actor, then the content of the messages must be completely subordinated to the solution of this problem. Below we will talk in more detail about the technologies for selecting such messages. In this case, let us pay attention to a fundamentally important place in the communication process of determining the main topics of an information campaign. Any errors and miscalculations at this stage can lead to waste of resources and efforts to create specific information products.
Coding information , i.e. its expression in certain signs, words. There are two types of coding: verbal, when information is expressed in words, and non-verbal when different signals, symbols are used.
Verbal communications are natural for the human community, the very thought of man is nothing more than an expression of one's sensations, desires in words. Therefore, verbal coding of information often occurs as the main theme of the information campaign is understood. However, in the information space, the main ideas of the campaign should be introduced in forms that are understandable to different social layers, attractive to their perception. That is why the coding of information in political campaigns turns into a search for ways to convey information to the public, taking into account its value preferences, perception characteristics, text skills, vocabulary, etc.
In the political communication, non-verbal coding is also actively used, when symbols, icons, are used instead of words. Modern technical facilities allow using various photo and film materials, which have very high informativeness and greater accessibility for understanding. However, the choice of symbols is an extremely delicate matter, since representatives of different cultures and subcultures have the same symbols that can be perceived quite ambiguously.
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Select a channel , i.e. way of information transfer. In political campaigns, different channels of information broadcasts are used, from the media to rumors and the transfer of information from mouth to mouth. In the following chapters, the main methods of communication will be considered. Here we note that each channel has its advantages and disadvantages. Communication "face to face & quot; helps the politician better understand the audience, feel her reaction. When a policy needs to expand its field of influence, it seeks to use the media. Radio and television provide excellent technical capabilities not only to influence the mass audience, but also to adjust the appearance of the speaker and edit the performance. The written message makes it possible to weigh each word, to check the wording. Rumors allow & quot; embed & quot; anonymous information, to identify people's reactions to unpopular decisions.
Choosing a channel often precedes the encoding of information. This is due to the fact that each channel is used by the communicator to communicate with different types of audiences, so the coding of the same information distributed, for example, on television or in the press, will have its own peculiarities. In preparing for a speech on television, it is more important to create a visual image, while preparing for an interview in a newspaper, there is a need for clarity of wording, logical presentation. In other words, the choice of the channel determines the techniques for encoding information.
For the organizers of the political campaign, each of these blocks of the communication process is a problematic node that requires the communicator to use certain efforts to avoid loss or distortion of information when it is transferred to the recipient. In information theory, there is another term used to indicate the causes leading to loss of information - "noises". This term denotes all the interference that occurs in the communication process, including external ones.
It should be borne in mind that any political campaign is conducted in a space with a high level of noise. In modern society, there are many sources that generate political information, so it would at least be naive to expect that the recipient will receive only the information that the organizers of the political campaign worked on creating.
Political competitors, rivals, create strong impediments to communication processes in political campaigns. They can organize the dissemination of alternative information, compromising information, falsified information, etc. Possessing significant resources, political opponents can organize an information blockade, block access to the media.
It should also be taken into account that within the object of managerial influence own communication processes develop and develop. People communicate among themselves, share news, talk about their political likes and dislikes, interpret the television programs and newspaper articles in their own way, and broadcast rumors. These communication processes are beyond the control of political managers, and even well-established feedback does not allow us to grasp all their features and nuances. They create a special noise field, which often distorts the information disseminated by the subject of control in a bizarre way.
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