Classification of business processes.
Different approaches can be used to classify business processes. The most common ones are:
• Classification by categories of consumers of the results of the process:
- external processes (inputs are formed by external entities, outputs are intended for external consumers);
- internal processes (the supplier and the consumer is inside the organization, is its structural subdivision or official).
• Classification by scope of organizational units:
- corporate processes covering the whole organization (their number can reach 6-10);
Processes covering part of the units and targeting specific types of products.
• Classification of business processes by location with respect to functional areas:
business processes that exist in any functional area.
• Classification by level of consideration:
- the top level;
- elementary (operations that do not require a detailed description).
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• Classification by type of goals and tasks:
- the main business processes;
- auxiliary business processes;
- business development processes;
- business management processes.
Intra-functional business processes are usually located within and unique to functional areas. Such processes include:
• engineering studies (conducting research, determining the technology of production, managing the increase in the efficiency of the production process);
• Sales and marketing (identifying potential customers and decision makers, identifying customer needs, analyzing competitors, promoting products and services, conducting promotional activities, managing sales);
• production (acquisition of material and technical values, product production, additional support services for the product);
• Accounting and finance (budget formation, creation of financial documents, payment of taxes and fees, accounting);
• Personnel management (definition of requirements for candidates, selection of personnel, training and certification of personnel, payroll, motivation management).
Cross-functional business processes - are business processes that require the coordinated work of various organizational units of the organization. These include processes such as the creation of a new product, the development of a concept for the development of the company, the implementation of client contracts.
Business Processes , existing in any functional area - are planning, monitoring and analyzing the execution of orders , job responsibilities and implementation of business processes in the area of responsibility, for example: monitoring the execution of instructions from a superior; procurement planning, production planning, sales planning; analysis of the fulfillment of the sales plan, the production plan, the plan for the shipment of goods.
Classification by type of goals and objectives (Figure 2.2) is the most universal, therefore it is most often used in practice.
Fig. 2.2. Business Processes of the Organization
Core business processes are targeted to the consumer of the products and services of the organization. The main goals of their implementation are the creation of the added value of the product/service, the creation of products/services of consumer value, and profit.
Customers of the basic business process results are clients, external users, and other processes that act as internal users. Thus, we can say that the main processes are those that make up the essence of the business of the organization. It is their implementation that brings the company's revenue. In Fig. 2.3 shows the chain of the main processes of the medical center. Here, the external user is a patient who has concluded a contract for the provision of medical services. An internal user can be any of the processes in the chain, except the first. For example, the & quot; medical service & quot; is the user of the outflow (medical service contract) from the & quot; conclusion of service agreement & quot; process.
Fig. 2.3. The chain of major medical center processes
For more information about which processes are related to the main processes, see Chapter 3.
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Business Auxiliary Processes are designed to provide efficient execution of the main business processes. Consumers
the results of their implementation are the organizational units, so their main tasks are as follows:
• Providing the necessary internal products and services for the organizational units
• Ensuring the functioning of the company's infrastructure.
As a rule, supporting processes add value to products, while they are costly for the organization. Examples include human resources management processes, IT support, financial management, administrative support, security management.
The purpose of business development processes is to make a profit in the long term by improving the organization's operations, identifying trends and the direction of development of the main processes.
The main purpose of implementing business process management is to manage the main processes that support processes and development processes. They are responsible for managing the organization as a single system. The main consumers of the results of these processes are the owners, investors, customers, personnel, suppliers and subcontractors and other entities of the external environment of the organization. These processes include: strategic, tactical and operational management and planning, analysis and development of corrective actions; coordination of interaction of various structural units of the organization.
A level description of the organization's business processes.
When investigating the business processes of an organization, it is advisable to begin their description from the top level. At the same time, at the initial stage it is necessary to determine the degree of their further detailing. Usually it depends on the purpose of the survey. Traditionally, four main levels of the description of business processes are distinguished:
1) enterprise level;
2) the level of large functional units;
3) the level of the process;
4) level of functions (operations) of the process.
At the first level (enterprise level), the main processes that add value to the products and services of the company are examined. These processes are predominantly managed by senior executives, the general director and his deputies.
At the level of large functional units, the main processes are also considered, those already managed by the heads of departments, offices, directorates.
At the third level (process level), a detailed review of the processes that are implemented by specific departments and departments, for example, procurement of equipment, personnel search, warehouse management. In small organizations, where the hierarchy of organizational units is not deep, the processes of the second and third level can be combined. If you need a detailed study and description of the business process of the third level, it is usually presented as subprocesses, functions and operations (actions, transactions). The names of the objects to which it is broken when detailed, can vary. In Fig. 2.4 shows an example of the process detailing & quot; Learning Management & quot; on subprocesses and operations.
Fig. 2.4. Process Detail "Learning Management"
At the fourth level, the description of operational processes, ie. direct performance of duties by employees at their workplaces. For example, registration of incoming and outgoing letters, registration of employment, conclusion of a contract for the provision of technical support services for the client. As a result of studying the processes of this level, it is possible to describe in detail the sequence of actions of the company's employees, which they carry out within the framework of the implementation of business processes. After that, you can proceed to create regulations and instructions for the implementation of business processes and their operations.
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