Confront the professor
Let's ask a difficult question. According to well-established ideas, education is a general and eternal category. Does this mean that education without any changes accompanies humanity along the whole path of its historical development, that there is education, equally suitable for all times and nations? To answer this question, it is necessary to answer to others - whether the person and the conditions of his residence change. At first we must answer negatively, on the second, rather, positively, but with reservations. The general answer is negative.
However, each new socio-economic formation arises on the wreckage of the old, there is a historical continuity of cultures. This means that there are some general signs of upbringing that are characteristic of all socio-economic formations and are manifested throughout the course of historical development.
In the literature on education, you can find a lot of answers to the question, for example, such.
1. There are no common features, because each society has its own goals, forms and methods of upbringing.
2. All that characterizes upbringing, namely, the existence of goals, the transfer of accumulated experience, the organization of upbringing, the correspondence of its level to the level of productive forces and production relations-is the same for all socio-economic formations.
3. Common to all historical types of upbringing is the concern for the comprehensive development of the personality.
4. In addition to physical care, the most elementary function, education in any formation transfers to the younger generation a certain amount of knowledge, universal experience, prepares for a certain role in social and industrial life, shapes behavior.
5. Producing material goods, people thereby create a way of life, in production, the person himself is formed as a social being.
6. With all the fundamental differences in the aims and forms of the educational activity of this activity, there is a conscious goal: to form a personality of a certain type, to develop desired qualities (moral, intellectual, aesthetic, etc.) for it.
Summing up the views, we see that: 1) some signs of upbringing, primarily its purpose, are unchanged; 2) certain components of the educational process differ mobility and dynamics; 3) at all times there is a norm of upbringing (upbringing) that meets the requirements.
Having considered the concept of upbringing in a broad social sense, we have not clarified its concrete social, and especially the pedagogical essence. The fact is that education - the transfer of accumulated experience - is not only engaged in professional educators in specially created teaching and educational institutions. In today's society, a whole set of institutions has been created and is operating, directing their efforts to education: families, the media, literature, art, labor collectives, law enforcement agencies. In this regard, the general concept of education needs to be narrowed and specified. In narrow social sense , education is understood as a directed influence on a person by public institutions with the aim of forming certain knowledge, views and beliefs, moral values, political orientations, preparation for life.
With this understanding of education, a number of difficult questions arise: which of the public institutions is more responsible for the fate of upbringing than others? is it right to blame only the school and educators for the often unsuccessful upbringing, if the opportunities and strength of the educational impact of many social institutions surpass the modest possibilities of teaching and educational institutions?
It does not require any special evidence to conclude that if there are many educational forces, the success of upbringing can be achieved only through strict coordination of actions of all social institutions involved in the upbringing. With uncoordinated educational influences, a person undergoes very strong unilateral influences capable of deforming the overall goal of education. Coordinators of educational influence in a well-organized society are educational institutions, managed by highly qualified teachers.
In a broad pedagogical sense, education is a specially organized, purposeful and controlled impact of the collective, educators on the person being educated with the aim of forming the given qualities, carried out in educational institutions and covering the entire educational process.
In a narrow pedagogical sense, upbringing is the process and result of educational work aimed at solving specific problems.
In pedagogy, as in other social sciences, the concept of upbringing is often used to refer to the integral parts of a holistic educational process. They say, for example, "physical education", "aesthetic education".
To whom to believe?
You can make more than one pedagogical book only from the definitions of education. Thousands of them are fixed in the literature, but the need to understand this issue has not disappeared. One wise man, they asserted in the old days, is not wiser than another. In every statement there is a share of truth.
Some authors limit the upbringing of socialization, defining it as directed actions through which the individual consciously tries to impart the desired traits and properties (IS Kon). Others believe that education is the conscious, purposeful formation of a person or a social group leading to the emergence of strong mechanisms for regulating behavior and activity /i> (VI Ginetsinsky). Still others reduce education to the formation of the needs of the individual and socially acceptable ways to meet them (PV Simonov, PM Ershov). MS Kagan sees in education "an ascent to subjectivity", GS Batishchev - "the continuous formation of integrity, giving the person the opportunity to self-determination," B. Bitinas considers upbringing as familiarization with values strong> , etc.
Choose at random some more definitions.
& quot; It is unlikely that anyone will doubt that the legislator should treat with exceptional attention to the education of youth, since in those states where this subject is in disregard, and the most state system is thereby harmed " (Aristotle).
Under education in the most general sense of the word, it is necessary to understand the totality of all the efforts used to adapt (each new generation) to that social order to which the progressive movement of humanity calls for it & quot; (K. Saint-Simon).
& quot; Under education understand very different things. In the narrow sense of the word, under education is usually understood this or that deliberate and systematic influence of adults on the behavior of children and adolescents. But they bring up not only individuals, but also brings up the entire family, the entire school system. Educates the street, educate public institutions, the whole surrounding environment, the whole surrounding system. Educate events & quot; (N. K. Krupskaya).
& quot; Parenting is that the more adult generation communicates their experience, their passion, their beliefs to the younger generation. This is precisely the active role of educators, the representative of which is I & quot; (A. S. Makarenko).
"A person can become a person only through education. He is what makes him educate & quot; (I. Kant).
& quot; We are born weak - we need strength; we are born helpless - we need help; we are born senseless - we need reason. All that we do not have at birth and without which we can not do without, being adults, is given to us by education " (J.-J. Rousseau).
& "Parenting is a great thing: they decide the fate of a person" (VG Belinsky).
& "Parenting is the impact of one person on another in order to force the educated person to acquire known moral habits." (L. II Tolstoy).
& quot; Parenting means feeding the abilities of the child, and not creating those new abilities that it does not have. The goal of all education should be the creation of an active personality in the best ideals of social life, in the ideals of truth, goodness and beauty. " (VM Bekhterev).
Democritus already expressed the idea that a true education in terms of the depth of one's influence on man is "like nature"; it "rebuilds a person and, transforming, creates a second nature for him". The idea of education as a second nature, the second and the main birth of a thousand times repeated in all sorts of ways. We do not deny it today, emphasizing that upbringing is a means of unlimited opportunities for human development.
We refrain from considering new materials, there are many of them. Let us be surprised once more: what is the complex phenomenon of upbringing, if for a long history of mankind there is not even a general view of its usefulness, harm or uselessness developed.
Is it possible to make a complete and consistent definition of education? Can. Only it will take the whole book, and no one will want to read it.
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