Chapter 20. Industrial Injuries
20.1. Causes of occupational injuries and occupational diseases
Occupational trauma (labor injury) is a consequence of the action on the body of various external, dangerous production factors. More often, industrial trauma is the result of mechanical impact during collisions, falls or contact with mechanical equipment.
Trauma is possible due to impacts:
o chemical factors, for example pesticides, in the form of poisoning or burns;
o electric current - burns, electric shocks, etc.;
o high or low temperature (burns or frostbite);
o a combination of various factors.
Occupational injuries - is the totality of accidents at work (enterprise). There are several causes of occupational injuries:
o technical, arising from design deficiencies, machine failures, mechanisms, imperfection of the technological process, insufficient mechanization and automation of heavy and harmful works;
o Sanitary and hygienic, associated with violation of the requirements of sanitary standards (for example, humidity, temperature), lack of sanitary facilities and devices, shortcomings in the organization of the workplace, etc.
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o organizational, associated with violation of the rules for the operation of transport and equipment, poor organization of loading and unloading operations, violation of the working and rest regime (overtime, idle time, etc.), violation
security rules, untimely briefing, lack of warning labels, etc .; o psychophysiological, associated with the violation of labor discipline, intoxication in the workplace, deliberate self-injuring, overwork, ill health, etc.
Occupational disease - is the damage to the health of an employee as a result of permanent or prolonged exposure to harmful working conditions. Distinguish between acute and chronic occupational diseases. To acute include occupational diseases that occurred suddenly (during one work shift) due to the impact of harmful production factors with a large excess of the maximum permissible level or the maximum permissible concentration.
Occupational disease, in which two or more workers are ill, is called a group occupational disease.
The maximum permissible level of the production factor is the level whose impact during the work of the established duration during the entire length of employment does not lead to injury, illness or disability in the state of health during work or in the long-term life of this and subsequent generations. >
Acute occupational disease is possible in the form of an eye burn with ultraviolet radiation when performing welding operations, poisoning with chlorine, carbon monoxide, etc.
Chronic occupational diseases develop after repeated and prolonged exposure to harmful production factors, for example, vibration of industrial noise, etc.
Unfavorable (harmful) working conditions can be created by dustiness (mines, cement production), gas contamination (chemical production, brickworks), high humidity, production noise, vibration, uncomfortable work posture, heavy physical labor, etc.
Depending on the type of production hazards, diseases such as pneumoconiosis, damage to the skin, musculoskeletal disorders, vibration sickness, noise sickness (hearing loss), etc. can develop.
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