Multifunctionality of a journalist in multimedia editions
So, as we agreed above, the activity of the editorial staff as a production team can not be based on "eternal" oral traditions and legends, established technologies and habits. It must respond to the updated demands of the times. Accelerating the flow of information leads to increasing the role of technology in the work of the editorial staff and journalist. "Efficiency forces us to use more tight timing and more rigid organization of work. For this, modern editions pay attention to technical management, that is, the management of the distribution of technical resources and resources. Special technological computer platforms are installed that allow tracking the movement of information on different platforms, managing the creation of editorial content, distributing responsibilities, "- correctly notes I. Kiriya.
Note that with the traditional view of the profession, it is usually not customary to talk about the technological nature of the work of a journalist. Instead, when describing the results of activities, it is said about creativity, inspiration, inspiration, unknowability, flair, intuition, luck, etc. Of course, personal abilities and luck will always be strong factors for achieving high results. But in our time, the work of a journalist is largely regulated by technical solutions and devices - from a simple Google calendar to complex CRM - systems. An interesting example is the French newspaper Le Parisien, which spreads not only through the site, but also with applications for the iPhone and iPad. the publication uses an automatic coordination system. The basic scheme of the process is as follows: first the texts are prepared for websites, and all further work processes are identical for different distribution channels, and materials (text, video, slides, metadata) are sent to certain applications as a result of automatic conversion.
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& quot; I know that on each specific strip there will be so many articles. That such an article refers to such and such a page that it includes so many photographs that it is attached to video, etc., and all this is processed automatically at night, and 90% of the material is delivered by the system itself. And we plan to further expand automation, because a special staff for filling such applications is too expensive, "- commented D. Kro, deputy director of Lei Parisien on new media.
This is an example of how technology does not displace living journalists, but allows you to automate part of the routine processes that must be performed by the editorial staff. In general terms, this can be called "technologization" the work of correspondents: in it the share of individual creative activity decreases and the share of technical functions grows. "Working with content is changing - the majority of journalists are increasingly processing content and are less engaged in direct reporting work", - said the Swedish researcher G. Nigren.
Of course, the technical side of publishing and broadcasting is still provided by specialists. But the rest is done by the journalists of the multimedia editorial office: this can be the layout of pages, the recording of video reports, the simplest video editing, etc. In editions, instead of & quot; traditional & quot; journalists are increasingly demanding representatives of new hybrid specialties. In addition to the already familiar content managers, it can be producers of video materials for infoscreens, producers of Internet projects, project managers, information designers, etc. That's what a list of new professions , according to the assessment of the non-profit organization Center for Sustainable Journalism, in the near future will complement the professional landscape of any media outlet.
1. Header optimizer - is engaged in adjusting the headings of articles for search engines to increase traffic from search engines.
2. The social media reporter/aggregator - collects information in social media and verifies the facts.
3. A story scientist - is responsible for studying the behavior of users in social networks and preparing recommendations on the topic and format of the material on this basis.
4. The data detective - editor searches for and brings to the readable form of statistics.
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5. The main curator in chief - is responsible for the correctness of the procedures for collecting and storing information by source.
6. explanatory journalist - responds to user questions - especially when the media work 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
7. The viral marketing expert (viral theta checker/viral video maker) - makes sure that the & quot; minor & quot; the news did not appear on the pages of the publication, and prepares materials that are distributed at high speed in social networks and blogs.
8. The slideshow specialist - is responsible for the visual-dynamic series.
9. A specialist in the blogosphere (networker/engager) - supports promotions designed to involve a large number of users and bloggers (such as the "Vedomosti" project and the "Silver Rain" ; & quot; Hunting for flashers & quot;),
10. The e-book creator - the selection of this profession reflects the trend that has already been actively manifested in the West - the use of e-books as a channel for the sale of their materials.
11. Web developer .
There are fears that in such conditions the work of a journalist becomes more automated and standardized. Indeed, when the cornerstone of the correspondence is format, the technical means - camera and micro
background - become the most objective sources of information, and the author's uniqueness can go to the background. But technology does not always narrow the field for the creative work of a journalist. In the conditions of technological determinism, a journalist should not become a slave of formats, but learn to use new platforms and tools to achieve his goals. The profession is becoming more complex, improving and requires more and more skills.
However, some negative effects still can not be ignored. So, from the understanding of professionalism, the ethical component is increasingly more noticeable. This affects the activity of a journalist who ceases to realize his socially significant role and increasingly focuses not on the personality of the audience person, but on the faceless, soulless consumer of information. Some researchers hypothesize that the ability to publish, supplement and modify texts at any time cancels existing professional standards. In the opinion of a number of specialists, in itself, the acceleration of production processes in media organizations can also threaten the profession, its quality level. They believe that, in the conditions of permanent shortage of time, the journalist faces the need for constant accelerated processing of large arrays incoming information, which is fraught with a decrease in the quality of its selection, analysis, evaluation and processing, and ultimately creates a threat to the quality characteristics of the final information product. "
Let's note one more important factor, transformed in digital conditions. Internet & quot; & quot; new criteria for assessing the work of the journalist, easily fit into statistical measurements, but not always reliable in substance. For example, it allows you to get an instant estimate of the popularity of a publication due to the number of views, comments, & quot; likes, & quot; in social networks. But in practice this can lead to a distortion of the journalist's motivation if he is carried away by quantitative indicators as an end in itself.
Despite the obvious advantages of rapidly developing technology, not all journalists are using the opportunities of convergence and digital technologies. Russian publications face the same difficulties as the Western ones, primarily because journalists who are used to working in a certain rhythm find it very difficult to get along with new formats.
Pavel Chernikov, editor-in-chief of the site "Kommersant":
In & quot; Businessman & quot; everyone understands that it is necessary to move to a joint editorial board, but there are a lot of difficulties. Take, for example, a simple task of organizing a workspace. After all, a large pewsrum means that a person does not have a permanent job. And some journalists work in the newspaper for 10-15 years, they have their own workplaces, to which they are accustomed, someone has a favorite teddy bear on their monitor, without which there are no analytical articles written, etc., and here journalist suddenly put for any free laptop.
Olesya Nosova, chief editor of the site "Komsomolskaya Pravda":
If a person is not touched, then he will not do anything. Probably, many would like as before: write two materials a month and get a good salary. Today in & quot; KP & quot; a journalist must write, shoot, speak in foreign languages - these are professional requirements for journalists of our newspaper.
Vladimir Sungorkin, CEO of ID "Komsomolskaya Pravda":
We must overcome the resistance of the journalist. I even have a 60-year-old former colonel of the Soviet Army (it would seem unbribable at all) today to take four crops from his conversation with Stepashin, for example, in the newspaper, on the website, on the radio and on television, "Komsomolskaya Pravda." >
Journalists, even the leading media, do not always keep up with the upgrade, imposed by technology. Also note that convergent processes cover not all publishing collectives of our country. Many publications still work on old patterns, and the only answer to technological challenges are Internet sites with digitized filling of paper editions, in fact, electronic archives. At the heart of this situation are the causes of a different order: this is the conservatism of the editorial teams, and the technological backwardness of regional editions. Another important circumstance is the non-market nature of many media whose existence depends on the subsidies of the owner or the state. As a result, the viability of such media is more often associated not with the satisfaction of the needs of the audience, but with the interests of, relatively speaking, the "sponsor".
The key problem is also that many journalists still perceive the Internet only as an additional channel for distribution of materials. In fact, we are talking about the emergence of a new space, a new measurement system in which humanity exists, and this new space has other fundamental laws. For example, the speed of information propagation is changing due to the absence of a deterrent factor for the device for propagation & quot; (whether it's a printing press, a radio transmitter, or a movie and video projector). The principle of territoriality, which is largely determined by the distance from the "device for reproduction," loses its meaning. The need for media mediation disappears (between a citizen or a group of citizens and the state, between the advertiser and the recipient of the advertising message). The access device to the publication becomes both a feedback device, and also gives an opportunity to determine which particular article or heading is popular and influences the reader. There is as yet no clear understanding of what a modern journalist in a convergent publication should be able to do.
However, the main functions of a journalist - the formation of the agenda and the interpretation of events - retain their significance. The constants of the profession can also include moral and ethical principles of the journalist, professional skills, aspiration for improvement. Change, rather, the form of work with information and channels of delivery to the reader, and, after them, key competencies. Researcher A. Amzin highlights the following attributes of a modern journalist: he must be literate, be able to search for facts on the Internet, write large volumes of texts in the shortest possible time, know at least one foreign language, and have the skills to work with graphic editors. Unfortunately, this point of view leaves behind the important principles that guide professional journalists when applying the technological skills listed here. We should not forget that journalism is a form of social communication and interaction of people, which means that moral regulators of professional behavior are strong in it.
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