Quality Management Model
The quality management is carried out in the PDCA sequence: Plan actions - Do them - Perform the check done - Check the Act. Then the cycle (the so-called Deming wheel) is repeated again and again. The PDCA cycle is a simple and intuitive model of quality management. According to this model, in order to provide the appropriate level of quality, the following stages must be repeated continuously:
• Planning: what to do, when to do it, who should do it, how it should be done and with what;
• execution: execution of planned work;
• check: it is determined whether the execution of the work resulted in the expected result;
• Action: the plans are adjusted taking into account the information received at the verification stage, and necessary changes are made.
As a result, there is a constant "setup" of the work process, and therefore more likely to obtain the desired result and continuous improvement (Figure 4.1).
Fig. 4.1. Deming wheel
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In many cases, managers avoid checking and serious analysis based on the results of the work (the main thing is done, and the winners are not judged). If there is no verification, then imperceptible can remain not only small, but also significant deviations from the goal. And if conclusions are not drawn for the future, then the next stages or projects "come on the same rake".
The results of the check do not always take specific actions, but even if the check gave absolute marks to what was done, then at the stage "Act" there are the following options:
1) you can "raise the bar" in order to reach a new qualitative level of work performance;
2) can be adopted on the basis of the implemented standard, which will become the basis for learning and control in the future.
The philosophy of universal quality management (Total Quality Management, TQM)
The main idea of TQM is that the company should work not only on the quality of products, but also on the quality of the work as a whole, including the work of staff. Continuous parallel improvement of product quality, process organization quality, staff qualification level allows to achieve faster and more efficient business development. Quality is defined by categories such as:
1) degree of implementation of customer requirements;
2) growth in the company's financial performance;
3) increase the satisfaction of employees of the company with their work.
The principle of operation of TQM can be compared to holding the ball on an inclined plane. In order to prevent the ball from rolling down, it must either be propped up from below or pulled from above. TQM includes two mechanisms: Quality Assurance (QA) - quality control and Quality Improvements (QI) - improving quality. The first - quality control - maintains the necessary level of quality and consists in providing the company with certain guarantees that give the customer confidence in the quality of the product or service. The second - improving the quality - assumes that the quality level needs not only to maintain, but also to raise, accordingly raising the level of guarantees. Two mechanisms: quality control and quality improvement - allow "to hold the ball in the game", i.e. constantly improve, develop business.
Integrated quality management determines the culture of attracting all people in the organization to the process of continuous measurement and improvement. ITIL, by analogy with TQM, says that service management is based on the preparation and planning of the effective and rational use of four P's: people, processes, products (services, technology and tools) and partners (suppliers, manufacturers and sellers).
In the work of GR Niva, "The space of Dr. Deming & quot; 14 basic management ideas are presented. Here are some of them.
Set a goal and be consistently firm and consistent in achieving the goal of continuous improvement of products and services. Distribute resources in such a way as to ensure long-term goals and needs, not just short-term profitability.
Introduce in practice training and retraining of personnel. Teach all employees, including managers and managers, in order to better use the capabilities of each. Training is the same part of the work process as production. Rooting and spreading improvements is the result of learning. The costs of training are negligible compared to the benefits that result from the fact that the employee performs his work correctly and with the best benefit to the company.
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Destroy the barriers between departments, services, offices. People from different functional units must work in teams in order to eliminate problems that may arise with products or services.
Top managers should lead and lead the whole company in the direction of improving the quality of each of its activities: provide the necessary support, training, allocation of funds. "
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