Ratio of heredity and social environment
Austrian naturalist GI Mendel became the founder of the doctrine of heredity. Biology was enriched by the experience of scientific genetics. Thanks to the accuracy of the experimental methods and the intensive nature of the research efforts, genetics has grown to the level of one of the remarkable sciences of our time. If all our units of heredity (genes) were characterized by unshakable constancy, any heredity would represent endless variations of the same, resulting from mechanical, infinitely diverse, but unproductive combinations. Selection would produce not new forms, but only fluctuations within the framework of clean lines. However, in reality, life is reproduced in constantly renewed forms. If we talk about the structure of the human body, its functions, the countless, truly amazing subtleties of its heredity, then theoretically we know that heredity is determined by the mutual arrangement of genes.
Genetic science has been able to identify somatic units of heredity and ways of transmitting them from generation to generation. We must first of all ask ourselves what exactly are the corresponding units of heredity. Their existence is a biological fact, serving as a prerequisite for any application of genetic data to human heredity. Our task is to establish units of heredity. This will help us not only to understand the inheritance of traits, but also to gain a deeper understanding of the factors affecting the course of mental life.
Social Theory Theory
French Enlightener P.-A. Holbach developed the theory of the social environment. Man is what society does. It turned out that it is the social environment that makes a person by himself. People have a plastic human nature. It can be molded, shaped according to any social order. PA Holbach wrote that if an African child is given European upbringing and education, then he will differ from his brethren only in skin color. Now any schoolboy could object to Holbach: such a child would undoubtedly inherit the features of an African.
However, such views have proved tenacious. In the XIX century. the Russian philosopher AI Herzen thought about the same. He wrote: "The dependence of man on the environment, on the age of no doubt". The environment in which man was born and raised, the era in which he lives, makes a person act in a certain way. Therefore, it is important to understand first of all the society, and then the person who can not "not reflect in himself, his time, his environment".
Of course, the social environment, society has a huge impact on people. However, this does not mean that a person is simply a reflection of the social environment. If this were so, all people of the same culture would not differ much from each other. However, the fact is that each person is individual. Its peculiarity manifests itself in psychology, thinking, in the internal world inherent in it. Society in many ways forms a person, but the latter is not at all a raw and pliable material. On the contrary, it can be assumed that a person in all the wealth of his inherent qualities himself has an effect on the character of the society in which he lives.
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