Technologies of social work abroad
Genesis of the development of technology of social work abroad
Practical social work abroad is divided into general work and specialized.
Social work of a general profile includes the following areas:
1. Social therapy on an individual-personal and family level for the purpose of social adaptation and rehabilitation of an individual in the context of his environment.
2. Social work with groups that can be classified by age (children, youth, elderly), sex, interests or similar problems (groups of former prisoners, alcoholics, drug addicts, etc.); social work in the community, in the community, focused on expanding the network of services, strengthening community ties, creating a favorable psychological climate in people's homes, as well as promoting various kinds of local initiatives, organizing mutual assistance, etc.
In all countries, specialized social work is also developed, which is carried out by specialists in the field of labor and employment, health, in medical rehabilitation services, educational institutions, nursing homes, penitentiary institutions, armed forces. In the world practice, there are two types of social protection of the population - active and passive social protection. Active social protection is aimed at the able-bodied members of society and involves creating conditions for self-protection of people, primarily through active actions in the labor market and through their participation in social insurance. Passive social protection is aimed at the disabled and socially vulnerable segments of the population and consists primarily of direct material support.
In this regard, there are two main approaches to understanding the essence of social protection: this is the social security of citizens and their family members, transformed to new socio-economic conditions, and social assistance provided to certain categories of people in the form of social benefits, and social services and having an address character.
The International Labor Organization (ILO) refers to social protection social insurance and social assistance. The ILO conventions formulate the basic principles of social protection of the population, regulate the minimum level of various types of social protection and the categories of the population to which they should be distributed. National social protection systems are formed on the basis of ILO conventions, taking into account the specific economic, social and cultural development of a particular country.
The system of social protection of the population and professional social work are closely related. As a professional activity, social work presupposes the existence of the necessary legislative and regulatory framework, developed infrastructure, trained personnel, in short, everything that social protection can represent as a social institution. The system of social protection, especially at the micro level, is a kind of organizational and legal field for social work. In turn, with the help of social work tools, social protection functions are implemented. Coming into the social work of trained professionals increases the effectiveness of measures for social protection.
Currently, in the countries with market economies, various organizational and legal forms of social protection of the population are used. Leaders, as mentioned above, are currently social insurance and social assistance, including various payments and services. In different countries, these indicated forms were formed depending on historical conditions and therefore, despite the uniformity of tasks, they differ in approaches and methods.
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