Consumer behavior as a result and business activity factor
As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:
• patterns and mechanisms of consumer behavior, making purchasing decisions;
• psychological mechanisms and methods of exposure to advertising;
• psychological patterns and mechanisms for the formation and perception of the image and brand;
be able to
• use the psychological patterns of consumer behavior and promotion mechanisms to solve specific marketing problems arising in business organizations;
• Analyze the methods of influence used in advertising, evaluate the psychological effectiveness of the advertising impact, conduct psychological examination of advertising, brand, image;
• psychological methods of research and influence with the aim of forming effective marketing strategies for the functioning of the business organization;
• psychological methods of marketing research, assessing the psychological effectiveness of advertising, psychological methods of branding and image.
Keywords: marketing, marketing communications, consumer, consumer behavior, psychological methods of market research, advertising, image, brand.
Marketing in the business organization
Definition and essence of marketing
In order to define the concept of "marketing", it is necessary to distinguish the basic values of the English equivalent - the word "market". Noun stands for market, sale, trade, food store, the verb has the value of buying, selling, trading. Thus, marketing can be defined as an activity aimed at improving sales and improving the efficiency of product sales.
Currently, there are many definitions of the concept of "marketing" and all of them do not fully reflect the essence of this phenomenon. The reasons for this lie in the complexity and diversity of this phenomenon. There are several basic approaches to understanding the essence of marketing (Vlasova, 2005).
1. Marketing as a market activity, subordinated to certain goals and integrating all possible actions. In some definitions, marketing is considered as a set of sales tools (advertising, means of promoting goods) or as a set of tools for analyzing the market (marketing research, forecasting sales, etc.).
2. Marketing as a business philosophy, a conceptual approach to market activities.
3. Marketing as a social and managerial process, which includes both conceptual approaches and concrete actions on the market.
The theory of marketing arose in the US in the early XX century. and its development took place in close connection with the level of development of production and market relations. There are several stages in the development of marketing, the elements of which present the main conceptual approaches that form the basis of the policy of modern business organizations. Let us consider these steps in more detail.
The first stage (the beginning of the XX century - the 1930s) is associated with the orientation towards production. As this time there was an active development of the industry against the background of increased demand for goods. In this situation, to strengthen the manufacturer's position in the market allowed increasing the volume and efficiency of production, as well as improving the quality of the product and expanding the range.
The second stage (from the 1930s to the 1950s) is characterized by sales orientation. As a result of the global economic crisis, demand for goods fell sharply due to a decline income of the population. For successful functioning in the market, companies had to direct all their efforts to sell the manufactured goods, not paying attention to the true needs of buyers.
The third stage (from the 1950s) reflects consumer orientation. At this time, a new stage of development has entered a new stage of development in economically developed countries, the purchasing power of the population has increased, but now buyers became more demanding and did not want to spend money on the goods that they were offered. Thus, organizations were forced to turn to the consumer to find out from him what he needed, what he could and wants to buy. It is to this period of development that the emergence of marketing research.
Then the concept of marketing continued to develop. In the 1950's and 1960's. emerged social marketing, aimed at achieving non-commercial goals in public and political activities. In the mid-1970's. as a fundamental strategy, targeting competitors, implies exploring a competitor with the aim of predicting his behavior and building his own strategy with an orientation to this forecast. In the 80-ies. XX century. begins to spread an individualized approach to the consumer, which implies an increase in the diversity of the product range, the release of goods for certain small groups of people, as opposed to the existing trend, to target large groups of consumers.
An important step in the evolution of marketing concepts was the emergence of the concept of socially responsible marketing or social and ethical marketing, which put forward the preservation and strengthening of the welfare of the consumer and society as a whole.
As already mentioned, these historically developed approaches now represent the main modern marketing concepts. Using the concept of marketing, business organizations develop their own development strategy. There are five such concepts.
1. The production-oriented concept (the concept of improving production) comes from the fact that the consumer prefers cheap products that are easy to find on the market. Thus, with the development of the organization, the emphasis is on optimizing production and increasing sales. Usually this concept is used if the demand exceeds the supply or when it is necessary to reduce costs by mass production.
2. The product-oriented concept (product improvement concept) is based on the statement that consumers make their choice based on the high quality of the product.
3. The concept of sales-oriented (intensification of commercial efforts), suggests that the consumer can and should be persuaded to buy goods through various marketing activities (discounts, gifts for sale, .p.).
4. The consumer-centric concept focuses on satisfying the needs of customers, constantly updating and improving the product in accordance with the growing demands of consumers.
5. The concept of socially responsible marketing assumes the satisfaction of the interests of all consumers, producers and society as a whole, as well as the need to protect the environment, take care of the health of the consumer.
The most common in the current market development conditions are concepts - consumer-oriented and socially responsible marketing.
Because these concepts are built on the opinions, interests and needs of different consumer groups, companies need this information, which can be obtained through a specially organized study. Let's turn to the essence of marketing research.
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