Fourteen Deming's principles
E. Deming himself considered his key principles-the commandments as the basis for the transformation of American industry. They were also the basis for lessons for top Japanese management η 1950. E. Deming stressed that the adoption of these precepts and actions to implement them indicate that management intends to stay in business and aims to protect the investor and save jobs. These commandments are applicable to both small and large enterprises; both in the service sector and in the manufacturing sector. They are applicable to any unit in any company.
1. Persistence of purpose - improving products and services.
2. New philosophy for the new economic period by knowing the managers of their responsibilities and assuming their leadership on the road to change. Further, addressing to managers, E.Deming calls:
3. End the dependence on mass control in achieving quality; eliminate the need for mass control, making quality an integral property of the product, & quot; embedded & quot; quality in products.
4. End the procurement practice at the lowest price; instead, minimize the total costs and seek a specific vendor for each product you need in production.
5. Improve each process to improve quality, increase productivity, and reduce costs.
6. Introduce training and retraining of personnel into practice.
7. Establish "leadership"; the process of managing employees should help them do their job better. It is necessary to carefully consider the personnel management system. The purpose of inspection should be to help people, machines and devices so that they can work better.
8. Destroy fears, so that everyone can work effectively for the enterprise.
9. Destroy barriers between units: research, design, production and implementation must be combined to anticipate production and operational problems.
10. Discard empty slogans, appeals, addressed to production personnel, such as "zero defects", or new performance tasks. Such calls are meaningless, since the vast majority of problems arise in the system, and their solution is beyond the capabilities of employees.
11. Eliminate arbitrarily set tasks and quantitative norms.
12. Give employees the opportunity to be proud of their work ; eliminate the barriers that deprive workers and managers of the chance to be proud of their skills.
13. Encourage the desire for education and improvement.
14. Strive for each commitment to improve the quality, as well as the effectiveness of the top management.
Discussion of the presented principles is a separate issue and is beyond the scope of this textbook. We emphasize only the following: some of the principles, for example the first, are high-level tasks; others, such as the thirteenth, are a method of progress; separate principles, despite their inner meaning, are contradictory; and principles like the tenth contradict the views of other "quality guides."
In general, Deming's 14 principles are often considered important goals, which themselves do not provide the tools to achieve them.
E. Deming himself proposed a seven-point action plan, starting with mastering each of the 14 items and managing "deadly diseases," which, according to Deming, most companies in the Western world are exposed to. This lack of consistency of goals, the pursuit of immediate benefits, the system of certification and ranking of personnel, the senseless rotation of cadres of managers, the use of only quantitative criteria for evaluating the company's performance
Deming's Action Plan consists of the following seven steps:
1. The guide, relying on all 14 principles, fights "deadly diseases" and obstacles, coordinates the concepts and directions of the plans.
2. The leadership is going with the spirit and internally tuned to move in a new direction.
3. The management explains to the company's employees why changes are necessary.
4. All the company's activities are divided into stages (stages), with each subsequent stage being, as it were, the customer of the previous one. Constant improvement of working methods should be carried out at every stage, and at every stage it is necessary to fight for quality.
5. An organizational structure is quickly created that will work to continuously improve quality. Deming suggested using the Shuharga cycle (PDCA) as a procedure to help improve quality at any stage.
6. Each employee can participate in the improvement of work at any stage.
7. A quality system is being constructed (Deming believed that this requires the participation of knowledgeable statisticians).
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