Functional styles of the Russian literary language. Styling factors. Classification of styles
The word style goes back to the Greek stylos - the so-called wand, which was written on a board covered with wax. Over time, style began to be called handwriting, the manner of writing, a set of receptions for using language tools. Functional language styles have been given this name because they perform the most important functions, being a means of communication, communication of information and impact on the listener or reader.
By functional styles are understood historically developed and socially conscious systems of speech resources used in this or that sphere of communication and correlated with this or that sphere of professional activity. In the modern Russian literary language, there are book functional styles - scientific, journalistic, church-religious and officially-business, which act primarily in writing, and conversational style, , which is characterized mainly by the oral form of speech.
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Some scholars distinguish as a functional style artistic (artistic-fiction) , i.e. language of fiction. However, this view raises fair objections. After all, writers use all variety of linguistic means in their works, so that artistic speech is not a system of homogeneous linguistic phenomena. On the contrary, it is devoid of any kind of stylistic closure, its specificity depends on the features of individual-authoring styles .
Each functional style is a complex system covering all language levels: pronunciation of words, vocabulary, morphological means and syntactic constructions. Functional-style fixation of language tools can be depicted schematically (Figure 1.1).
Fig. 1.1. Functional styles of the modern Russian literary language
To show how much our speech depends on the situation and the interlocutor, let's give an example. Imagine that the husband at dinner asks his wife what she was doing today. In response, he hears:
In the first half of the day, I accelerated the restoration of proper order in the living area, as well as in the utility room intended for cooking. In the following period I organized a visit to a retail outlet in order to purchase the necessary food products.
The abnormality of such an answer, if only a deliberate joke is hidden behind it, is obvious, although it is correct both in substance and in terms of the norms of the literary language. However, these words are relevant in an official report, in a resolution or in a business letter, but not in a conversation between husband and wife. Here the situation requires a simple, ordinary answer: In the morning, I quickly removed the room and kitchen, and then went to the store for food.
As you can see, the appeal to language tools with a certain style of attachment should be justified. Using them is not always justified in a specific situation.
Let's describe the functional styles of the modern Russian language.
Conversational style performs the basic language function - the communication function ; its purpose is the direct transmission of information predominantly orally (except for private letters, notes, diary entries). Language features of the colloquial style determine the special conditions of its functioning: unofficial, unconstrained and expressive speech communication, the absence of a preliminary selection of linguistic means, the automatism of speech, the ordinary content and the dialogical form.
A strong influence on conversational style renders situation - the real, objective situation of speech. This makes it possible to reduce the utterance extremely narrowly, in which individual components may be absent, which, however, does not interfere with correctly perceiving conversational phrases. For example, in a bakery we do not think the strange phrase: Please, with bran, one; at the train station at the ticket office: Two to Odintsov, a child and an adult; at the computer: Reset to grid , etc. In everyday communication, a concrete, associative way of thinking and a direct, expressive character of expression are realized. Hence the disorder, fragmentation of speech forms and the emotionality of conversational style.
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For a casual conversation, a prerequisite is a lack of officiality, trusting, free relations between participants in a dialogue or a polylogue. The setting for natural, unprepared communication determines the ratio of speakers to language means.
In the colloquial style, for which the oral form is primordial, the most important role is played by the sound side of speech, and especially intonation : it is (in interaction with a peculiar syntax) the impression of conversation.
Less tension of the organs of speech leads to changes in the quality of sounds and even sometimes to their complete disappearance ( hello, and not hello not says and grit; not now, a ter, instead of we hear bush, instead of what - choi etc.). Especially noticeable is the simplification of orthoepic norms in non-literary forms of colloquial style, in common speech.
In radio and television journalism, their own special rules of pronunciation and intonation. So, in improvised, unprepared texts
(conversation, interview) is natural and natural to follow the pronunciation norms of the colloquial style, but not to its two-dimensional variants, but neutral. At the same time, the high culture of the speaker's speech requires the accuracy of the pronunciation of words, the statement of stresses, the expressiveness of the intonation pattern.
Vocabulary is divided into two more groups:
1) common words ( day, year, work, sleep, early, can, good, old )
2) colloquial words ( loser, potato, lomac, sedentary, moving, catch, reader, zapravsky, grumble, spill, i>).
In the colloquial style is not excluded also the use of common words, professionalisms, dialectisms and jargon, i.e. a variety of extraliterary elements that reduce the style. All this vocabulary is predominantly domestic content, specific. In the colloquial style is very narrow range of book words, abstract vocabulary, terms and little-known borrowings; At the same time, the activity of expressive-emotional vocabulary (familiar, affectionate, disapproving, ironic) is indicative for him. Evaluation vocabulary usually has a reduced color here. Typical is the use of occasional words (neologisms that we invent for the case): Opener, Nutcracker (instead of walnut ), lay down (pattern adopt. ).
In the colloquial style, the law of saving speech means operates, so instead of names consisting of two or more words, one word is used, for example: evening paper - ; foreign literature is foreign; condensed milk - condensed milk; five-story house - five-story building. The spoken style is rich in phraseology : most Russian phraseological units are colloquial ( at hand; tears and throws, unexpectedly, like with a duck's water, skin and bone, stuffing a pocket, etc.). Even more expressive are the idiosyncratic expressions ( fools do not write the law, the devil on cake, tear , etc.). Both of them give a vivid imagery to the speech; from book and neutral phraseological units they differ not in meaning, but in special expressiveness and loweredness. Wed, for example: to die - to play in a box; to mislead - to hang noodles on your ears ( rub glasses, suck from your finger, take from the ceiling ).
Word formation colloquial speech is characterized by features due to its expressiveness and appraisal. In it, suffixes of subjective evaluation are used with the values of affection, disapproval, magnification, etc. ( mummy, cuddler, puppy, sunshine, child, crook, vulgarity, dominion, coldness , etc.), and suffixes with a functional coloring of conversationality, for example for nouns - suffixes -k - ( cloakroom, overnight, candle, stove ) ; -and ( knife, rain ) ; -un ( Talker ) ; -w - ( watchdog, doctor, conductress, ticket-taker ). Useless forms ( snoring, dancing ), composing ( lethargic, empty talk ) are used.
You can indicate the most active cases of word-formation of the adjective names of the estimated value: eye-aster, oc-toast, tooth-stern; kusachiy, pugnacious ; thin, healthy , etc., as well as verbs - prefix-suffix: poshal-uvat, pri-govar-uvat, to-play ; suffixal: derg-anut, speck-nut, chik-nut; healthy-et; prefix: lose weight, at-ku-drink , etc.
To increase the expression, doubling the names of adjectives is used, sometimes with additional prefixation, acting in a superlative function ( it is so huge-huge, the water is black-black, it's eye-eyeballing, but smart-wise ).
In the field of morphology , the colloquial style is highlighted by a special frequency of verbs, which are used here even more often than nouns. However, in the constant use there is a limited circle of verbs, the most universal for the statement or description of events, the transmission of emotion, the specificity of certain event, speech, intellectual, mental actions or sensory perception: be, speak, know, can, say, go , want, go, understand, think, remember, come , etc.
The verb be is the most common and multifunctional in colloquial speech. The verbs of movement have a special use: they usually do not realize their valence properties according to the normative common model, but are used "abbreviated", without distributors. See, for example: It's insulting; broke, swept - all in vain !
Researchers note that the speaker, while in a situation of unconcerned unprepared communication, seeks to simplify and facilitate his "speech behavior", therefore "easily and often resorts to ready-made language formulas, including all kinds of clichés, patterns and stereotypes" . At the same time, the use of verbs in a portable meaning, unusual for a literary language, is rather productive in a colloquial style, for example: break - "go somewhere forcibly, through"; bewitch - & quot; charming, attract attention, charm & quot ;; fail - & quot; destroy some business & quot ;; fly - "quickly pass, pass, pass"; stretch out - & quot; lie down, legs stretched out & quot;Characteristic is the frequent use of personal and demonstrative pronouns: I, you, he, she, they, this, such, everything. Personal third person pronouns can be used in special, erroneous or purposeful terms & quot; wrong & quot; function, excluding the name of the person present. Cf .: Olga Ivanovna - it is fundamental. Her line - professionalism (in the presence of the subject of the utterance there is an erroneous grammatical-stylistic use); Is she claiming a part of the property ? (purposefully & quot; erroneous & quot; use, excluding the subject from the communication situation). In addition, only conversational style allows the use of a pronoun, accompanied by a gesture without first mentioning a specific word ( I will not take it, This does not suit me ). Obviously, in the colloquial style a narrow range of pronouns is productive. Apparently, this is due to the saving of language efforts, on the one hand, and determines the variety of additional meanings of such language tools - on the other.
In colloquial style, preference is given to variant forms of nouns ( in the shop, on vacation, at home, a glass of tea, honey, a workshop, a locksmith ), numerals ( fifty, i), verbs ( read, and not read, raise, and not raise, do not see, do not hear ). The colloquial forms of the degrees of comparison of the names of adjectives ( are better, shorter, harder than all ), adverbs ( faster, more comfortable, most likely ) and variants of ending pronouns ( in their home ).
Under the effect of the law of saving speech media, the conversational style allows the use of real nouns in combination with the names of numbers ( two milk, two rissoles - in the meaning of 'two servings'). The usual forms of calls are truncated nouns: Mam! /Tag ;; Kat! ; Wan! etc.
There is no less original speech in the distribution of case forms: the nominative case prevails here, which replaces bookly controlled forms in oral replicas. See, for example: He built the dacha - the station next door; I bought a fur coat - a gray caracal; Porridge - look ! (talking in the kitchen); Shoe House - where to go out ? - On the next ( stop ) . There turn left, jump and shoe store (dialogue on the bus). Especially consistently the nominative case replaces all the rest when using numerals in speech: The sum does not exceed three hundred rubles (instead of three hundred ) ; with one thousand five hundred and three rubles ( with one thousand five hundred and three ) ; had three dogs ( three dogs ).
After verbs and pronouns that dominate the colloquial style, the productive lexico-grammatical group is nouns, and by qualitative diversity in colloquial speech they "exceed" Verbs. Actually, the following nominations must be recognized as colloquial: first, words like upstart, crib, which in the codified literary language do not have single-word nominations; secondly, words like grin, poklep, knee, thief - a variety of synonyms of the corresponding neutral words of the codified literary language; third, the deminux.
Adjectives in colloquial speech are used much less often than parts of speech such as a pronoun, noun, adverb and verb. In addition, researchers who study the names of adjectives in colloquial speech, "unanimously note the fact of the predominance of relative adjectives in it." The frequency of relative adjectives is determined by the topic of conversation and the situation of communication. The most frequent qualitative adjectives used in colloquial speech: good, bad, big, small, old, new, interesting. The use of possessive adjectives ( mother's work, grandfather's gun ) ; short forms are rarely used. At all, there are no participles and gerunds.
Among the service parts of speech in the colloquial style, the special functional purpose is possessed by particles: What can I say !; That's how it is, Be happy !; Really going to?!; Straight diplomat !; Nearly missed !; Hardly had time! , etc. Particles in colloquial speech are the actualizers of the rematic part of the utterance, fix communicatively important information.
The syntax of conversational speech is very peculiar, which is due to its oral form and vivid expression. Simple sentences dominate here, more often incomplete, extremely short, the most diverse structure. The situation makes up for the omissions in the speech, which is quite understandable to the speaker: Show, please, in the line (when buying exercise books); Taganka I do not want (when choosing tickets to the theater); To you from the heart ? (at the pharmacy), etc. Unusual and the order of words in living speech. Here, in the first place, as a rule, the most important word in the message is put: Computer to me buy - , Currency paid; The most horrible thing is that nothing can be done already - , The temperature is overshooting. For colloquial complex sentences, the weakening of the function of the adjective is characteristic, merging it with the main, structural reduction: You could talk about than she wanted; You will work with whom to order; Call who you want; I live as it is necessary.
It should be noted and such features of spoken syntax as:
1) using a pronoun that duplicates a subject: Faith, it comes late; Local , he noticed this;
2) putting in the beginning of the sentence an important word from the subordinate part: Bread I love to always be fresh;
3) the use of sentence words: Okay; Clear; Can; Yes; No; From what?; Of course!; Still would!; Well yes!; Well no!; Horror!; Perhaps etc .;
4) the use of plug-in structures, adding additional, additional information, explaining the main message: I thought ( then I was still young), he jokes; And we, as you know, always welcome the guest; Kolya - he is generally a good man - wanted to help;
5) the activity of the opening words: maybe, it seems, fortunately, as they say, so to speak, say, so, you know.
Thus, the colloquial style, to a greater extent than others, has a vivid idiosyncrasy of linguistic features that go beyond the framework of a standardized literary language. It can serve as convincing evidence that the stylistic norm is fundamentally different from the literary norm. Each of the functional styles has developed its own norms, which should be taken into account. This does not mean that colloquial speech always contradicts literary language rules. Deviations from the norm may fluctuate depending on the intra-style stratification. For example, in the colloquial style, there are varieties of reduced, rude speech; vernacular, imbibed the influence of local dialects, etc. However, the spoken language of intelligent, educated people is literary and at the same time sharply differs from the book one, bound by strict norms.
Following SI Ozhegov, whose words written in the 1930s, have not lost their relevance at the present time, let us emphasize that the modern Russian literary language is still dynamic and dialectical in its development, because " goes to the establishment of two norms within oneself: written and spoken. The latter is mobile and unstable. The basis for the creation of a new colloquial literary norm is the linguistic properties of vernacular. And the difference between these types of urban language is interpreted as a distinction of social differentiation, but as a stage of cultural development. "
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