Interaction with the audience
The final, final stage of work on speech is directly speech, speech, or action (actio). In classical rhetoric, utterance was given great attention, since the speaker's awkward behavior before the public, a weak voice , a spiteful look and many other seemingly insignificant trifles could nullify or devalue the efforts spent on the preparation of the speech text, the choice of arguments and expressive means. M. Cicero argued that "execution is the only lord of the word." Without him, the best orator is worthless, and the mediocre, knowledgeable in him, can often surpass the best. " In modern business rhetoric and practice of preparing a public speech, the questions of the speaker's appearance, his ability to stay in public, diction, voice, verbal and non-verbal behavior are no less relevant, because both the classical theory, the practice of his speeches, and the observation of colleagues' speech convince in the importance of awareness and thought-out of speech, self-reflection on one's own activity and self-evaluation of one's speech.
Speaking directly about the speech (speech) and behavior in front of the audience, usually distinguish several components: 1) self-presentation (ie presentation of the audience, appearance and first impression produced by listeners, 2) speech technology ( voice, diction, intonation); 3) non-verbal behavior of the speaker (kinesics, proxemics, facial expressions); 4) the nature and ways of interaction with listeners.
Self-presentation of the speaker
The ability to submit yourself correctly is a very important factor, ensuring not only the success of the performance, but also the professional activity of the person as a whole. The first impression determines the further perception of the person, the attitude to his behavior and the ideas expressed. Slurred speech and inconsistency of thoughts during oral speeches prevented the career growth of many really smart and talented people.
An experienced speaker never starts a speech immediately, appearing in front of the audience, but withstands a short pause of 5-10 seconds. This time is necessary for the speaker to cope with the excitement, see and feel listeners, and listeners in order to get acquainted with the speaker, to form an idea of it, to tune in to the perception of speech. It is established that the first impression, the first ideas about the personality of the speaker, formed by the audience on the basis of appearance and behavior, are very stable and during the performance of the change, the changes can not be more than 4-6%, while the criteria & quot; trust & quot; and & quot; attractiveness & quot; are considered the most stable and can vary within one percent.
What influences the formation of the image of the speaker? What details will be important, defining for the audience? Undoubtedly, the first impression is formed on the basis of visual perception: how the speaker is dressed, how he stands, moves, holds, what view he has. External visual impressions are transformed into mental representations about the character of a person and are associated with the personal qualities of the speaker. The personality of the speaker is undoubtedly manifested in the content of speech, in words, but before the speech is heard, the public perceives the external appearance of the speaker and makes up a representation about him that can significantly influence the perception of the prepared text, causing distrust, rejection or consent./p>
The first important element that determines the perception of a person is his view, and hence, eye contact with the audience. It is through the eyes of the speaker that he establishes feedback from the audience. The facial expression and look should be benevolent, open and interested, since friendliness is one of the most important qualities that have people to themselves. It is unacceptable to look out the window, to the side, to look away or, worse still, to look nowhere, through the audience, into space. Sometimes the view of the speaker is fixed on one or several of the benevolently or interested listeners, but it is better to try to translate the view from one person to another, trying to capture the attention of the entire audience.
The second important element is the pose. It is necessary to strive to ensure that in the classroom you feel calm, natural and at ease, you should avoid both unnatural freedom and stiffness and tension. Extremely valuable and necessary for the speaker is the ability to express confidence, in the posture, look, mimicry, as "any doubt, hesitation, manifestation of uncertainty in the behavior of the speaker confuses the listener: it is difficult to trust and trust a person who doubts himself" . But at the same time avoid the slightest manifestation of arrogance. Therefore, it is desirable to think through and provide in advance the very first gestures, movements and your location in the audience.
The third element to which attention should be paid is related to the psychological state of the speaker in front of the audience. The so-called "class shock", or "orator fever", i.e. The excitement experienced by the speaker at the sight of the public is a fairly common phenomenon, although it is most common for beginner speakers. The main causes of anxiety, anxiety and even fear of public speaking are considered immersion in personal experiences, self-doubt, a small and perhaps unsuccessful experience, as well as insufficient preparation for the performance. Famous Russian lawyer of the XIX century. AF Koni wrote: "To less worry before the speeches, you need to be more confident in yourself, and this can only be with the best preparation for the lecture. The better you know the subject, the less you worry. The size of the excitement is directly proportional to the work spent on the preparation of labor, or rather, the result of training. The preliminary work that is not visible to anyone is the basis for the confidence of the lecturer. This confidence will immediately increase during the speech itself, as soon as the lecturer feels (and he feels surely and soon) that he speaks sensibly, freely, makes an impression and knows all that is left to say " . In addition to good preparation, it is important to acquire the experience of public speaking, because with experience comes confidence in one's own strengths, one develops one's own style and, accordingly, reduces fear.
Five tips for overcoming fear of public speech
• Prepare for the speech as thoroughly as possible.
• During the test speech completely put yourself in the situation of a real case.
• Ask a couple of good friends to sit in the forefront. When you see people you trust in front of you, then you feel more confident.
• Before releasing the speech, remove the voltage. It is useful to afford a little idleness, you can use classes during which you rest. Do not forget about walks. But there is little need! Twenty deep breaths are calming down, shortly before the beginning of the performance.
• Just before the beginning of the speech, speak emphatically slowly and calmly.
Recently, in various literature on business communication, negotiations, public appearances, much attention is paid to how the speaker should be dressed. The question is both simple and complex, since it is hardly possible to give an unambiguous answer to it. But the most general recommendations regarding appearance and clothing are reduced to the criterion of relevance: the speaker should be dressed in accordance with the specific situation, do not enter into dissonance with the expected audience, and also focus on one's own preferences and intuition. For example, tuxedos and ball gowns are mandatory attributes at the Nobel Prize awards ceremony, but are completely out of place at the university or at the factory.
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