Principles of single-circuit, two-loop and deutero training
Any training can be viewed as a complex three-step process, consisting of the acquisition of knowledge, their dissemination and sharing. Knowledge can be acquired not only in the process of learning and development, but, as mentioned above, directly from their own experience, are taken from the experience of colleagues or from organizational memory. K. Argiris distinguishes two types of training: one-circuit and two-circuit. In the literature, they are sometimes viewed as adaptive and generative.
Today most of the competitor-oriented OS operate on the principle of one-loop training, ie. training, which allows the school to analyze to what extent it meets the existing norms and standards. One-loop, or adaptive, training is consistent, incremental and focused on problems and opportunities that are relevant to the organization's activities. As K. Argiris notes, organizations in which single-loop training is the norm determine the "guiding variables" - what goals and standards they expect to achieve - and then monitor and analyze achievements and, if necessary, adjust what is happening, thus closing the outline.
In single-loop training, all OS staff participate in the analysis of the organization's activities (in its profitability, promotion of educational services, staff satisfaction), has access to relevant data. Most intensively, this analysis is carried out by quality improvement groups (in our country - the introduction of the ISO-9001 quality system). True, K. Argiris believes that single-circuit training is suitable only for solving routine, repetitive questions, helping to perform daily work.
Training in modern educational institutions also implies dual-circuit training, ie. training in a methodology for reviewing norms or standards, taking into account the opinions of those affected by the proposed changes. Two-loop training takes place when the monitoring process initiates an action that overrides the & quot; directional variables & quot; so that they respond to a new situation that may arise as a result of the impact of external conditions. Such training is more suitable for complex, non-programmable tasks.
In real practice, teachers in such training not only receive feedback from consumers (students, their parents), scanning the environment, but also, given feedback and suggestions, including critical ones, are trained on the basis of improving activities, improving the quality of work due to the revision of norms and standards, teaching technologies, teaching and methodological complexes. Two-contouring training, according to experts, comes first with the question: why did this or that problem arise? Further, the roots of its occurrence are investigated, and not just superficial symptoms, as happens with single-circuit training.
The third approach used very rarely in Russian educational institutions is deuter training, which can be characterized as teaching learning by analyzing the organization's long-term results and ensuring its competitiveness by create an environment, in which it can succeed. Such training provides for analysis by the employees of the organization of the results of their activities for finding the best ways to implement it.
As practice shows, this kind of organizational training involves not only studying trends and identifying the most important of them, but also formulating indicative indicators, the achievement of which should be controlled - all this is included in the concept of two-loop training. Therefore, deuter training is teaching learning by analyzing the long-term results of the actions of educators and ensuring their competitiveness by creating a learning environment in which they can succeed.
Thus, if the OS and the pedagogical team want to survive in the conditions of change, the training of educators should be an essential component of their corporate policy; training at all levels - professional and strategic - must be conscious, continuous and integrated, implemented using the most up-to-date approaches (training training, development of competences for updating competencies), drawing on one-circuit, two-circuit and deutero-contour forms of adaptive learning and learning by doing.
The process of forming the psychological and pedagogical competence of future teachers who organize the interaction of the participants in the educational process needs technological support, but it should be recognized that the relevant technologies are still poorly developed, despite the considerable amount of work in psychology and pedagogy on this issue. The authors agree that vocational training can be facilitated by including not only the content, but also the organization and methodology of teaching the elements of professional activity that model the cognitive and practical actions of the future specialist. In other words, under the professional orientation of learning interaction in the educational process is meant the organization in the learning process of the quasi-professional activity of students who are professional in content and educational in form.Thus, in the opinion of AM Mityaeva, in the process of forming competence, the trainee must go through a consistent analysis of situations that are close to reality and require more competent actions, assessments, reflection of the acquired experience, solving quasi-production problems, the content of which are situations and problems , arising at various levels of professional activity.
In order to successfully implement the above-mentioned and considered innovative paradigms, it is necessary to design not only the content but also the technological support for the process of training future specialists in the solution of professionally oriented psychological and pedagogical problems of interaction between the participants in the educational process, including the method of activating previously studied material in certain sections of the course, learning the solution of problems and the conditions for its effective use, as well as the system of contacts Olya and assessment of learning outcomes.
In the design of technological support, one should proceed from the fact that pedagogical technology as a set of psychological and pedagogical attitudes and organizational and methodological tools of the pedagogical process (by the definition of BT Likhachev) also functions as a system of methods, principles and regulators used in training, and as a real learning process. In this regard, it is necessary to envisage the implementation (in the process of teaching the analysis of professionally oriented psychological and pedagogical interaction problems) of the following principles and approaches: a systematic approach; the principle of scientific and fundamental; the principle of the professional orientation of education; the principle of integrativity, intersubject communications and interdisciplinarity; synergetic approach; technological approach; personal-activity approach. As a basis, one can take the generally accepted practice of implementing these principles and approaches at the private (subject) and local (modular) levels, taking into account the specifics of their implementation in training strategies, activity (Figure 1.1).
This will ensure the full development of the creative initiative of students, research skills, which they must master to the full extent and which are an essential component of their psychological and pedagogical orientation and competence.
Fig. 1.1. Learning Strategies
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