Situational management in production logistics systems
Situational management is the adoption of managerial decisions as problems arise in accordance with the emerging economic situation.
In logistics production systems, performance of work and provision of services under situational management, we will understand the operational management of the process of production of products, works and services, which consists in making managerial decisions in the event of problems associated with a certain set of circumstances called the production situation. The totality of the problem and the production situation will be called a problem situation. Problem situations in the production process arise as a result of the influence of external and internal disturbances.
The objective of situational management in the logistic systems of production of products, works and services realized in the rhythm of production - in real time (RMW) is the elimination of the results of disturbances and ensuring the maximum possible correspondence of the actual production progress to the planned operational plans with minimal time and used in the production of resources.
Schematically, situational production management in the RMW is shown in Fig. 8.2.
In logistics systems of production and consumption of industrial products, the management of the links of the logistics chain in real time is carried out by specific operational management systems, namely: purchases and supplies of original components; storage of purchased components and manufactured products; production of products; distribution and consumption of finished products.
The structure of the elements of operational management of any link of the logistics chain is interrelated specific functions of rationing, planning, accounting, control, analysis and regulation.
In discrete industrial production, the valuation function is realized by calculating the calendar -plan -
Fig. 8.2. The scheme of situational production management in real time
New standards (CIT), regulating the parameters of the movement of labor objects in the production process.
The planning function consists in the development of the operational schedules, schedules, tasks for the manufacture of blanks, parts, assembly units, assemblies, products (items of production) for workshops for the planned period (quarter, month, decade, week, day, shift, hour) , sites, workplaces of the main production in accordance with the established release of finished products, calendar-planned standards and the actual availability of production items (PP).
The operational accounting of the manufacture of finished products and movement in the production of blanks, parts, assembly units is carried out by shops, sites and technological operations.
Operational control and analysis is the timely recording of disturbances and deviations in providing workshops, plots with the necessary resources to carry out planned work, during the implementation of operational plans, schedules, tasks of manufacturing items of production and establishing authorized levels of production management, planning periods, within the framework which can eliminate the existing disturbances and the resulting deviations.
Operative regulation of the course of the main production, under the influence of disturbances, is designed to develop and implement control actions aimed at the timely provision of production with the necessary material and technical, labor resources and the implementation of operational plans, schedules, tasks established for planned periods. >
The process of functioning of auxiliary production and services in discrete industrial production is interconnected with the functioning of the main production of the enterprise. The interconnection of the functioning (integration) of the main production, auxiliary production and servicing services is carried out within the framework of planning and economic calculations performed in the enterprise as a whole and the coordinated interaction of the operational management system for the main production and specific operational management systems for auxiliary production and services. As a result, the smooth functioning of the main production units is ensured, guaranteed by the necessary resources and services.
In discrete industrial production, specific systems of operational control are used to organize the modeling of optimal flow processes of the main and auxiliary production, service services and control their movement in space and time.
In the process of industrial, economic and financial-economic activity, an industrial enterprise is exposed to external and internal disturbances. By the speed of the reaction of the enterprise management system to these disturbances, they can be classified as controlled and uncontrolled. For controlled disturbances, the enterprise management system reacts at the time of their occurrence, preventing the occurrence of significant deviations in the actual states of the realized production, economic and financial-economic processes from the targeted (planned, established). Such management of organizational and economic objects, which include industrial enterprises, by analogy with the management of technical objects, will be called "perturbation management", i.e. & quot; input management & quot ;. For uncontrollable disturbances, the enterprise management system does not react at the time of their occurrence. The effect of uncontrolled disturbances leads to the appearance of significant deviations of the actual states of the realized production, economic and financial-economic processes from the target ones, to which the enterprise management system reacts. Such management of organizational and economic objects will be called "deviation management", i.e. & quot; output control & quot;.
It is known that the efficiency of the "disturbance management" & quot; substantially higher than the & quot; deviation management & quot; (& quot; perturbation management & quot; is significantly more effective than the & quot; rejection control & quot;). However, the implementation of the & quot; perturbation management & quot; requires a large one-time to create and the current costs of ensuring the operation of the enterprise management system, rather than the "management of rejection." Therefore, as a rule, in the conditions of limited financial resources allocated for the creation and operation of the enterprise management system, and limited technical capabilities to record the effect of a number of disturbances in real time, it is created on the principle of "preferential control of deviation and partial control of the disturbance" deliberately condemning the enterprise to receive an unduly reduced economic effect in the horizon of its industrial and economic and financial-economic implementation activity.
In the process of functioning of the links of the logistics chain, as a result of the influence of external and internal disturbances, problem situations arise.
The situation in the chain of the logistics chain is considered problematic if in the course of its functioning an internal contradiction (the result of indignation) arises that requires the adoption of managerial decisions. Examples of internal contradictions may be events arising from the actions of controlled disturbances on the process of functioning of the logistics link, unplanned changes in the amounts of resources involved, for example, resulting from the failure of work equipment, trauma or illness of the performer, etc. The management decisions can consist in determining the level in the management system of the chain of the logistics chain, whose competence includes resolving this contradiction, in adjusting operational plans, in making changes to work schedules, etc.
Existing specific systems of operational management of the links of the logistic chains of production and consumption of industrial products, works and services that implement the principles of management "on deviation" and "mainly by deviation and partly by disturbance", which regulate the sequential transmission of information on emerging problem situations from the bottom to the top for establishing authorized levels of management, decision makers (LPR) and sequential transfer of commands in reverse order, predominantly based on " ; human factor & quot; and to a lesser extent on mathematical methods and economic-mathematical models, do not provide the required correspondence of the actual states of stream processes to their target states by the set of established indicators. For example, in discrete industrial production, the target indicators are nomenclature, time, cost and volume indicators. The statement of the emergence of problem situations at different levels of the hierarchy of management of the links of the logistics chain, the adoption of decisions on their resolution, the development of decisions on the change in operational plans, the work schedules of the links of the logistics chain take unreasonably long intervals of time. As a result, there are unproductive expenditures of material, labor, energy and other resources in logistics units, various losses, which negatively affects the efficiency of the logistics chain as a whole.Therefore, under the current conditions of the functioning of logistic chains characterized by an unstable external environment, the intense influence of random external and internal disturbances that cause the generation of various problems within the logistic chain, there is an urgent need for a substantial increase in the speed of operational control of the flow processes in the links of the logistics chains. A possible solution to the above problems of operational management of logistics links is the increase in the share of formalized procedures in the processes of ascertaining, analyzing, generating possible alternatives and selecting the most appropriate problem situations for the implementation of operational plans, schedules, tasks, links of logistics chains.
An alternative to the existing organization of management of the links of the logistic chains of production and consumption of industrial products, works and services, under the conditions of intensive influence of random perturbations is the organization of their management, based on the principles of management "by indignation" and "mainly by perturbation and partly by deviation"; address statement of emerging problematic situations in logistics; targeted setting of management levels and decision-makers authorized to resolve emerging problem situations; the development of adequate management solutions in the minimum possible time intervals in real time. Such organization of management of links of logistic chains will allow for any meaningful & quot; calls & quot; external and internal environments, almost immediately establish adequate "responses" organizational structures of management of logistic links (ascertaining problem situations and developing managerial solutions for their resolution).
It is advisable to implement the alternative management of logistics links based on the use of specialized systems for recognizing emerging problem situations. A specialized recognition system is a specific set of interconnected blocks that perform the acquisition and transformation of input information about incoming elements for recognition of unknown elements of the environment into the output, their belonging to certain reference classes of elements whose composition and essence are determined by its purpose. Each reference class corresponds to one or a set of solutions that resolve the specific problem situation that has arisen. From a set of effective solutions belonging to one class of problem situations, in a specifically arisen problem situation, the only optimal solution that is recommended for implementation is selected.
Specialized systems for recognizing problematic production situations arising in the production of discrete production systems of various levels relating to the main production in the course of the implementation of operational and calendar plans should provide in real time: fixation of the results of the action of disturbances; address setting of the levels of the hierarchy of management of the enterprise and decision-makers authorized to eliminate the consequences of the influence of disturbances; determination of the need to make changes in operational and production plans, schedules, assignments at the factory, inter-shop, shop and district levels; the development of optimal (rational) solutions to eliminate the influence of disturbances and the correction of operational plans, schedules, assignments to production units. As a result, minimization of deviations of the actual state of production from the target is achieved.
The reaction of the system of operational control of production in conditions of application of specialized systems for recognizing problematic industrial situations to detect the effects of external and internal disturbances and to take decisions aimed at their elimination requires minimal time, the magnitude of which is determined by the productivity of information technologies used in production management.
The speed of recognition systems is ensured by the significant costs of various types of resources at the stage of their creation and the minimum necessary resources to ensure their functioning. It is during the development and construction of a recognizing system of the appropriate type and purpose that laborious work is carried out to investigate a variety of possible situations, analyze them, classify them in accordance with the set of management decisions used to solve them, develop algorithms for recognition, select and (or) develop a set of technical means, solution of a number of other problems. The one-time costs of labor, financial, material and other types of resources that occur during the creation of the recognition system pay off in a short time due to the savings of various resources when it is repeatedly used in real-life objects.
In the process of functioning of the recognition systems under consideration, a person can take part in the preparation of initial information about recognized problematic production situations; in the analysis (examination) of intermediate and final recognition results; in the learning process of the recognition system, if the recognition system "with training" is active; in making decisions on the implementation of directives produced by the system of recognition and a number of other works. To collect and convert the input information to the output, these recognition systems can use various technical means and systems, for example, sensors that record various parameters of the execution processes carried out at the enterprise; software and hardware for the implementation of recognition algorithms; local area networks; means and communication systems; automated workplaces of management personnel at various levels of enterprise management.
In Fig. 8.3 provides a list of tasks that are proposed to solve the system of operational management of the main production based on the use of specialized systems for recognizing problematic production situations at various levels of production management, namely:
• recognition of management levels and decision-makers (decision makers) involved in the development of management decisions in problem situations (RURP);
• recognition of solutions to eliminate the effects of perturbations at the factory, inter-shop, shop floor and precinct levels of management;
• Recognition of the facts of the need to make changes in operational and production plans, schedules, assignments at the factory, inter-shop, shop and district levels;
• recognition of decisions on adjusting calendar plans, schedules, tasks of production systems of various levels.
In  in detail: setting the problem of recognizing the levels of management, authorized in resolving the emerging problem situations, and the method for solving it; an example of the development of the main stages of the system for recognizing the authorized level of management and the person making the decision in the event of failure of the tool or equipment used in the workplace of the primary production system - equipment for technological equipment (SRT); theoretical bases of application of methods and systems of recognition at development and acceptance of administrative decisions in organizational systems; the main stages of creating specialized systems for recognizing solutions to eliminate the effects of disturbances on the production process using the example of systems for recognizing solutions for the organization of replacements.
Fig. 8.3. List of tasks for situational management of the main production
we are disabled STO; the main stages of the creation of systems for the recognition of problem situations arising in the primary production system in real time during the shift, developing managerial solutions for the correction of the shift task, etc. The main stages of the construction of a specialized system for recognizing problematic production situations that establishes the facts of the need to adjust the volume-calendar production plans , operational schedules, schedules and tasks for workshops, sections, workplaces of the main roduction considered in .
The scheme of organization of situational management of the logistic link - discrete production, under the influence of external and internal disturbances, based on the application of specialized systems for recognizing problem situations is reflected in Fig. 8.4-8.8.
These specialized recognition systems, allowing to formalize the functions of operational control, analysis and regulation of the main production, can be adapted to implement similar functions of operational management of production and economic and financial and economic activities of engineering departments or any other modern industrial enterprise engaged in marketing, development and preparation of production of manufactured products, ensuring the main production of sary resources and services, sales of finished products.
A list of these activities is shown in Fig. 8.9.
Flexibly corrected set of calendar plans, schedules, tasks of links of logistics chains, adequate responses of organizational systems of management of logistics links to external and internal disturbances in real time, based on a wide application of specialized systems for recognition of problem situations (PS), dictate the need for a single interrelated set of goal-oriented decision-making (calendar plans, schedules, tasks), according to which it is possible to organize the ordinated, harmonious functioning of the logistics chain as a whole.
Figure 8.4. Organization of operational management of modern industrial production on the basis of recognition of problem situations (beginning)
Fig. 8.5. Organization of operational management of modern industrial production on the basis of recognition of problem situations ( continued 1 )
Fig. 8.6. Organization of operational management of modern industrial production on the basis of recognition of problem situations ( continuation 2 )
Fig. 8.7. Organization of operational management of modern industrial production on the basis of recognition of problem situations ( continuation 3 )
Fig. 8.8. Organization of operational management of modern industrial production on the basis of recognition of problem situations ( ending )
Fig. 8.9. Situational management in the development, production and sale of products of engineering enterprises
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