Logistics includes a large part of its economic practice in the sphere of its interests. It is universal. It is difficult to imagine the type of activity that excludes the movement and interaction of material, information, financial, service flows.
In order to streamline logistics knowledge and areas of application in the economy, logistics is subject to classification (Figure 2.3).
In accordance with the structure of the economy, logistics has two applications: the sphere of material production and the sphere of services. Within each direction, it is classified according to the sectoral principle, for example, the logistics of the material production sector are: logistics of industry (with further subdivision by industry branches), construction logistics, agricultural logistics, etc .; as part of the logistics of the service sector, the division is performed taking into account the nature of the services - production services (trade logistics, or trade logistics, transport logistics, or
Fig. 2.3. Classification of logistics
logistics of forwarding services, warehousing logistics, etc.) and social services (logistics of medical services, logistics of hotel services, etc.). In the specialized literature the logistics of the sphere of material production is called the logistics of production , the logistics of the service industry - the logistics of the service. Their main difference is that the main structural element of the integrated flow of logistics of production is the material flow , and the logistics of the service - the service flow.
In terms of the scale of operation, logistics is divided into mega-, macro-, meso- and micro-logistics.
Megalogistics is getting established on the scale of the global economy in connection with the development of globalization processes, therefore it is also called global logistics. It provides management of logistical flows in associations of countries. At present, global logistics is recognized as operating in two international economic associations: the European Union (EU) and the USA - Canada - Mexico. At the same time, the fact that within the EU has achieved deeper integration with the creation of a single internal market is simplified and canceled customs formalities, the accelerated implementation of pan-European standards, the declared equality of the companies of the participating countries in obtaining state contracts in each country of union, etc.
Global logistics reveals new aspects of development due to the fact that international, multinational and multinational companies (TNCs) appear as subjects of the world economy.
United Parcel Service (UPS) - the largest express carrier of the United States - buys its competitor - Dutch TNT Express - for 6.85 billion dollars (5.2% billion euros). This transaction will allow UPS to take a third of the delivery market in Europe.
(For reference: TNT Express is the smallest of the four leading global parcel delivery companies, and UPS is the leader of this market. TNT Express was created in May 2011 through the spin-off of TNT. Now the company is going through a difficult period - since May its shares have fallen in price by a third.)
UPS expects through absorption to expand its business in Europe and Asia, and achieve an annual savings of approximately 500 million euros through synergy. Market capitalization is now about 7.25 billion dollars, the Corporation's revenue from the delivery of parcels in 2011 reached 12.25 billion dollars. TNT Express revenue in 2011 amounted to 7.25 billion euros, and two-thirds of this amount was for operations in Europe.
Recently, antitrust authorities are suspicious of large international mergers, but UPS is confident in the successful completion of the transaction. However, in the event of its termination, UPS will pay a penalty of 3% of the transaction amount, and TNT Express, if it chooses a more favorable offer, will pay UPS a penalty in amounting to 1% of the transaction amount.Macrologistics manages the flow of goods in the economy of a particular country - the national economy. It is developing with respect to interindustry complexes, such as fuel and energy, agro-industrial, timber industry, and basic industrial complexes for the country's economy, for example, machine-building, metalworking, and can cover industrial enterprises, logistics infrastructure organizations (trade and procurement, transport and others) of one industry or different departments located in different regions.
Recently, as part of macrologistics, regional logistics are singled out. At the same time, the region is regarded as a separate part of the national economy, specifically as a quasi-state or quasi-market.
Mesologistics is interpreted as the middle-level logistics of the economy, bearing in mind that the middle link is various economic associations, for example, vertically, horizontally integrated companies, companies with mixed integration , which generally correspond to the concept of a corporation.Corporate forms of organization of entrepreneurship in the modern economy are characterized by the complication of material, financial, information flows existing within the corporation and beyond it, the introduction of several levels of management (hierarchy of construction), as well as a complex, integrated structure: corporations often exist in the form of education , consisting of a number of companies (for example, a holding company, a financial and industrial group). Mesologistics, which is being developed within the corporation, - corporate logistics, solves the problems of ensuring current economic activity, i.e. appears as a means to achieve operational efficiency of the business; on the other hand, taking into account the intensity and complexity of commodity-material flows and market transactions, it serves to form strategic competitive advantages.
In addition to corporate logistics, the presence of regional logistics as part of mesological logistics however, unlike macrologistics, the region in this case is considered as a quasi-corporation.Micrologistics acts on the scale of the main economic link - the enterprise, builds from the position of achieving strategic goals and optimization of the basic operational processes, provides solutions to tasks related to the functional areas of the enterprise. In essence, its micrologistics is a classic variant of entrepreneurial logistics, although according to the above commentary on the classification of logistics in terms of scope of operation, corporate logistics should also be included in corporate logistics.
Micrologistics on the basis of the sphere of development of entrepreneurial activity is subject to further, more profound classification. At the same time, the existing forms of specialization in the economy in the context of two business sectors-the real sector and the financial sector-are important, bearing in mind that, on the whole, specialization develops on the basis of a general, private and individual division of labor.
Within the real sector, there is an industry specialization, which exists in two versions: subject and technological. Specialization focuses the business on the production of goods for various purposes, technological specialization - for the performance of work, including the provision of services. In this regard, we can conclude that business logistics of the real sector of the national economy is developing in accordance with the current classification of industries and its composition is identical to the sectoral composition of the economy.
Within the financial sector, logistics is much less useful. As a science, the logistics of finance is in a position to find its capabilities, and it is not entirely clear at the moment that this search will work. Nevertheless, some attempts by scientists to identify some areas of logistics of the financial sector, for example, banking logistics, insurance logistics, science are known.
Logistics is classified according to the functional areas, the functions performed, which correspond to the stages of the reproduction cycle of the goods (services) - this is functional logistics . In particular, the micro-logistics of a manufacturing enterprise is subdivided logistics logistics, in-production logistics and marketing logistics.
Logistics Logistics - is the applied direction of the development of logistics theory and the scope of practical activity, focused on managing the input material flows. In economic literature, often as a synonym for the term & quot; supply logistics & quot; use the term & quot; procurement logistics & quot ;. In fact, supply logistics & quot; and & quot; Purchasing Logistics & quot; although interrelated, but not identical concepts, because the semantic meaning of the basic concepts "purchase" is different. and & quot; Supply & quot ;. Thus, the term & quot; purchase & quot; means the purchase process, which includes the analysis of the supplier market, the choice of the supplier, the agreement with the price, which ultimately ends with the transaction of sale. & quot; Supply & quot; has a more capacious meaning. The term can provide for different methods of acquisition (purchase, sale, delivery, lease, leasing, joint activity or joint use of resources) and related additional conditions; for example, special delivery conditions, mandatory mode of transportation, type of cargo handling.
Intra-industrial logistics operates on flows that circulate during production. Its goal is to optimize flows within enterprises.
Previously, intra-production logistics dealt with economic entities characterized by territorial compactness. Currently, in connection with the emergence of more complex forms of business organization, such as corporations, we can talk about intracorporate production logistics. However, it should be borne in mind that such a logistics takes on its own specificity, due to its belonging to mesologistics, and considers the movement of internal flows between members of the integrated structure.
Sales Logistics provides sales of the products produced. It covers marketing, distribution, transportation, warehousing and other processes.
All flows in logistics - material, financial, information, service - are managed through resource logistics and jointly - through integrated logistics.
Depending on the type of resource in the resource logistics, material logistics and logistics of intangible resources are delineated.
The object of material logistics management is the flows of material resources (raw materials, materials, finished products, secondary material resources, etc.), as well as material stocks. Material logistics manifests its end-to-end action at all stages of the existence of a particular material flow - from the acquisition of initial material resources from suppliers through their use in production to the realization of finished products to end users, including staying in stocks. In this sense, material logistics is an integral part of supply logistics, in-house logistics and marketing logistics. At the same time, infrastructure support is rendered to it by: transport logistics, which ensures the physical movement of material resources, and storage logistics that ensure their storage.
Transport Logistics is engaged in choosing the most advantageous transportation option in terms of time and cost of the route, modes of transport and their combinations, vehicles. As a rule, transportation is accompanied by additional services, for example, handling, insurance, expeditionary support, cargo protection, which is also included in the functional area of transport logistics.
Warehouse logistics deals with storage, storage, delivery of material resources to consumers in accordance with their orders, replenishment of stocks. Warehouse logistics, in turn, includes: warehouse logistics, associated with the design, formation, functioning and optimization of storage facilities, and stock logistics, supervising the formation and use of inventories .
If the material flow in its movement crosses the state border, then there is a need for additional services related to the implementation of customs formalities, namely customs declaration, customs control, the corresponding actions constitute the functional area of customs logistics. Customs logistics - is the infrastructure support of material logistics in the part of material flow management when it is transformed into external economic flow.
Material logistics is applicable in the management of flows of all material resources, including primary ones, i.e. newly produced, created, as well as secondary, formed in the production process. The flows of secondary material resources are the objects of reverse logistics.
Reversible Logistics provides environmentally and economically efficient reuse of production waste, as well as packaging, packaging, unused supplies. Its peculiarity lies in the fact that the movement of resources most often occurs in the direction opposite to the flow of primary material resources, therefore the flows of secondary material resources are called return flows.
The object of management of logistics of intangible resources are flows of resources that do not have a material substance: financial, information, and service. In accordance with this, financial, information and service logistics are allotted.
Financial logistics realizes the role of financial flow as the accompanying material flows, specifically - the input flow of material resources and the output stream of finished products, as well as the flow of production waste. It ensures the performance of settlements in commodity-money transactions, and therefore the flows of financial resources it controls are counter-directed to the movement of material flows. With regard to the flow of work in process, financial logistics manifests a hidden effect, since it only reflects the accumulation of costs in production.
Information logistics provides a providing function in relation to material and financial logistics. It transmits information accompanying the movement of material and financial resources, while operating both counter-directed flows, for example, supply orders, and unidirectional flows, for example shipping documents.
A similar function is performed by information logistics with respect to service logistics, for example, by preparing a supply of "goods with reinforcement". In this case, the service logistics itself serves as an accompaniment to material logistics and synchronizes with it in the mode of providing production services, including pre- and after-sales services. The connectivity of the service flow with the material flow gives grounds for calling the production services services material, although from the physical point of view they are not.
A certain correspondence is established between the separate classification types of logistics. For example, a one-to-one correspondence is found between the material logistics in the resource classification, on the one hand, and transport logistics and storage logistics as part of the logistics logistics classification, on the other hand, since both transport and storage services can only be performed with respect to material objects .
Along with this, it is necessary to establish the differences between consonant classification logistic types. For example, it is necessary to draw a line between the logistics of finance and financial logistics in the resource classification, guided by the fact that the logistics of finance is correlated with the financial sector of the economy, and financial logistics - with the real.
The use of logistics in the implementation of complex targeted measures has provided the basis for the development of project logistics.
Project Logistics is used in project management of various scale (the project itself, megaproject as a target complex program, the system as part of the economic mechanism), industry affiliation fossils in the extractive industries, construction projects, reconstruction, technical re-equipment of enterprises, etc.), a functional role (innovative, educational, marketing project, etc.), situational binding (emergency project t, the project of reengineering, anti-crisis project, etc.). In the interests of further development of logistics in economic practice, it makes sense to identify and properly position logistics projects, i.e. projects with a focused focus on the introduction of logistics and the setting of logistics management, believing that they place - among projects with a functional role.
In the example shown in Fig. 2.3 classification of project logistics is not shown, because it represents different options for combining classification types of logistics, depending on the specific nature of the project, the stages of work, the composition of performers and many other factors. For example, a project for the construction of a residential real estate project: in terms of content, it is an investment and construction project that is implemented in a sequence of stages, including pre-investment and investment, by many organizations, including the customer, designer, developer, contractors, subcontractors, etc. Logistics used in management such a project, in terms of the scale of the action, should be attributed to mesologistics in a combination of micrologistic forms, in which all the functional and resource components are represented, zade update themselves transport logistics and warehousing logistics, to the extent necessary to activate the reverse logistics.
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