4.3. Subjects of conflict (conflicting parties)
According to the subject-activity approach, the subjects are the main structural elements of any conflict, since by opposing sides, by their actions they engender the conflict itself, give it some content and sharpness, determine its flow and change. Therefore, their perhaps more precise definition is one of the most important aspects of conflict analysis. Accurate identification of the conflict subjects helps to clarify its subject, to predict its dynamics and possible solutions. Often there are situations when it is difficult to identify the direct actors of the conflict. An example is ethnopolitical conflicts, such as Chechen or Ossetian-Ingush, when it is not easy to answer the question: who are the parties to the conflict: the leaders of the opposing sides, those who are directly involved in the military operations, those who perceive each other as rivals and support their leaders in the conflict, or all of them together as representatives and participants of a particular social group?
According to K. Boulding, the subjects of the conflict can be either individual individuals, or their communities, groups.
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Interpersonal conflicts - conflicts between individuals, personality-group conflicts - conflicts between an individual and a group and inter-group conflicts - conflicts between groups can be distinguished from the participants in conflicts.
A special type of conflict from this point of view can be considered an intrapersonal conflict in which the individual as it "bifurcates" on opposing subjects and is experiencing an internal struggle with himself, deciding what he should be, what to do, what to choose.
Often the conflict, beginning as an interpersonal one, with the advent of active adherents in each of its sides passes into the intergroup. Just as often, having become involved in a conflict within a certain group, the individual begins to lead his own line in it, as a result of which the conflict becomes for her personally group. All these & quot; transitions & quot; change the content of the conflict and therefore require serious analysis.
The main participants in the conflict are interested parties or opposing forces, the subjects of the conflict who directly commit active (offensive or defensive) actions against each other. Some conflictologists use such a concept as "opponent".
Stakeholders are the key link in any conflict. When one of the parties withdraws from the conflict, it ceases. If in an interpersonal conflict one of the participants is replaced by another, then the conflict changes, a new conflict begins. The party that first started the conflict is called the initiator of the conflict. Often this characteristic of an opponent is given out, as is his rank. Rank is a force that determines the level of the opponent's ability to realize his goals in the conflict.
Support groups are individual individuals who, through active actions or by their presence, with tacit support, can influence the development of the conflict, its outcome.
In the conflict it is often difficult to identify the motives of opponents, as in most cases they hide them, presenting an open motivation that differs from the true motives.
Conflict behavior consists of opposing actions of opponents. These actions realize hidden processes from the outside perception in the mental, emotional and volitional spheres of the participants in the conflict. The alternation of the reactions of the parties aimed at the realization of their interests and the restriction of the interests of the opponent constitute the visible social reality of the conflict.
Conflict behavior has its own principles, strategies and tactics. Among the principles of behavior in a conflict situation: concentration of forces, coordination of forces, striking at the most vulnerable point in the enemy's location, saving forces and time.
The strategy of behavior in the conflict - the orientation of the individual in relation to the conflict, the establishment of certain forms of behavior in a conflict situation. There are five strategies:
- rivalry - is to impose on the other side a preferred solution for themselves;
- cooperation - allows to search for a solution that would satisfy both sides;
- a compromise - involves mutual concessions in something important and principled for each side;
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- adaptation - is based on lowering your aspirations and taking the opponent's positions;
- Avoidance - the participant is in a conflict situation, but without any active actions to resolve it.
Strategies in the conflict are implemented through various tactics, including:
- tactics of capturing and retaining the object of conflict. Applies to conflicts where the object is material;
- tactics of physical violence. Such methods as destruction of material values, physical impact, infliction of bodily injuries, blocking of others' activities, causing pain, etc. are used;
- tactic of psychological violence. Causes an opponent to resent, hurt self-esteem, dignity and honor;
- pressure tactics. Receptions include the presentation of demands, orders, orders, threats, up to the ultimatum, presentation of compromising materials, blackmail;
- tactics of demonstrative actions. Applied to attract the attention of others;
- Coalition tactics. The goal is to strengthen our rank in the conflict. It is expressed in the formation of unions, increasing the support group at the expense of leaders, the public, friends, relatives, media appeal, various authorities;
- The tactics of fixing your position. The most commonly used, is based on the use of facts, logic to confirm its position. This belief, requests, criticism, promotion of proposals, etc.,
- tactics of friendliness. Includes correct treatment, underlining the general, demonstration of readiness to solve the problem, presenting the necessary information, offering assistance, providing services, excusing, encouraging;
- tactics of transactions. Provides for the mutual exchange of goods, promises, concessions, apologies.
Tactics can be tough, neutral and soft. In conflicts, tactics usually change from soft to hard.
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