On the psyche of animals, Information and irritability - Philosophy

On the psyche of animals

Information and irritability

The interaction of various material systems has as its result mutual relation which acts as a mechanical deformation, restructuring, decomposition of atoms, electromagnetic forces, chemical changes, physiological processes, psyche and consciousness. Reflection represents the result of interaction, in which is fixed what belongs to the reflected body. Any change of one object as a result of its interaction with another has something in common, commensurate with the original object. It represents isomorphic, i.e. structurally similar, the mapping of any side of the object. Thus, some fossils clearly store the imprints of the most ancient fish and plants. Isomorphic maps are widely distributed in nature: an imprint in any object, obtained as a result of the interaction of the latter with another object, is isomorphic in its structure to one side of another object. For example, the structure of a footprint from an animal's paw on sand or snow is isomorphic to that part of the paw that participated in interaction with sand or snow.

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Any reflection is information. It acts as a measure of heterogeneity in the distribution of energy. Any heterogeneity carries information with it. The concept of information is not related to its meaningfulness, but it can also be meaningful. Information is information about something, the display of one object or process in another. For example, information is spoken, letters, sunlight, folds of the ridge, the noise of a waterfall, the rustle of leaves, a small animal, as well as a poster that notifies a person about a meeting or a movie, a flash of a light bulb in an input photocell device of an automatically regulated machine, etc. The material means by which information is transmitted is a signal. In humans and animals, the immediate sensory signals - sensations and perceptions - constitute the so-called first signal system of reality. The person has developed speech i.e. the second reality signal system, which represents, according to IP Pavlov, "the signals of the first signals".

One of the important aspects of the interaction of any living organisms with the environment is their extraction of information about the environment. The exchange of information between animals is expressed in the characteristic sounds of beasts and birds, warning of danger, signal dances of bees. The complex life processes occurring in plants are also consistent with changes in the environment. In this adaptation to changes in conditions, an important role is played primarily by the ability of plants to capture, reflect the changes that occur, and obtain information about them. The ability to obtain and use information about the surrounding world is so important for life in general that it must be classed as one of the fundamental properties of living matter. In inanimate nature, there is no need to use interaction products as a function of special models of things. The need for functional substitution arises in living nature. Animals have a special adaptive activity - behavior.

One of the properties of the living is irritability. Life arises where organic compounds appear that are capable of self-regulation, self-reproduction, self-preservation, reproduction, self-improvement through evolution and irritability. Irritability is a property of the organism's life, which consists in reflecting the influences of the external and internal environment in the form of excitation and an external response selective reaction. In the course of evolution, the simplest forms of irritability inherent in the lower types of living organisms, starting with unicellular ones (for example , amoeba), plants, animals with a low-organized nervous apparatus (taxis tropism), are replaced by highly organized forms of behavior. Irritability is a dopsychic form of reflection; is a property of the organism that manifests itself in the form of only a physiological reaction, not yet associated with the emergence of a subjective image of the objective world. Irritability is a means of management, regulation of adaptive behavior.

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