Recommendations on the technique of argumentation in business communication
In the theory of argumentation, the demand for an individual approach to argumentation is advanced. Therefore, the methods of persuasion in the ideal should be as many as the people on whom reasoning is directed. At the same time, there are general psychological patterns, knowledge of which will contribute to a more successful impact on the communication partner.
Consider the recommendations on the technique of argumentation, given in the work of VP Pankratov, "Manipulation in Communication and Their Neutralization," with some additions.
In the process of argumentation, it is necessary, first of all, to take into account the personality of the interlocutor: his age, iol, temperament, level of education and professionalism, peculiarities of thinking. The leader needs to know the subordinates, the subordinate leader, and the speaker - the features of the audience. In the preparation of negotiations, information on business partners is usually collected. The manner and pace of the argument should be based on the personality of the opponent. You can not give arguments that seem convincing to yourself, but you need to choose those that are prioritized precisely for the opponent. This is called psychological transfer of argument. Therefore, before taking on the proof, you need to understand the mentality of your opponent, otherwise it will be unconvincing for him.
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The inconsistency, simplicity and clarity of the given arguments are the main components of the most important quality in business communication - persuasiveness.
Of great importance is the use of bilateral arguments -t.e. Showing not only the advantages, the disadvantages of a solution.
If necessary, you need to use the tricks & quot; Yes and ... & quot ;, & quot; Yes, but ..., "which contain both similarity and difference. The similarity is that initially in the reply to the opponent both in the first and in the second case the agreement with his arguments is demonstrated. A word of consent & quot; Yes & quot; removes the psychological barriers of distrust and mutual misunderstanding. Demonstration of consent to a certain point allows you to significantly reduce your opponent's desire to contradict. However, the similarity of these methods ends here.
Receive & quot; Yes & quot; & quot; means a lack of confrontation in the views, speaks of a single unified approach to solving the problem. Therefore, if it is necessary to achieve the disposition and trust of the interlocutor and not cause him an internal protest, it is necessary to implement the 'Yes and ...' reception.
Receive & quot; Yes, but ... & quot; emphasizes that fundamental difference, which does not allow to agree with the point of view of the partner. This method is advisable to apply when you need to achieve some concessions from the opponent and smash his arguments.
In the argument process, you need to use strong arguments. Weak and doubtful arguments must be dropped immediately, and the most weighty ones are built into a consistent system of arguments. The expert in the field of rhetoric PS Porohovshchikov warned: "Keep in mind that every weak argument, attracting attention, undermines the credibility of all others: one cripple corrupts the entire structure."
What is strong and what is a weak argument? The strength and weakness of the argument is determined by who the argument is directed to.
Strong arguments are usually specific calculations, the opinion of a superior, objective data.
Weak arguments, as a rule, are the opponent's own opinion, probabilistic events, the point of view of notorious enemies. It is better not the quantity, but the quality of the arguments, their reliability.
More convincing arguments are the interlocutor, causing sympathy. It is easier for him to persuade an opponent to defend the point of view, because his arguments against the background of a positive attitude toward the partner seem psychologically more convincing. Therefore, we need to develop communication skills and not only seem, but also be a pleasant interlocutor.
The argument should be conducted correctly in relation to the interlocutor and openly acknowledge his rightness, in the event that his approach is more convincing. Openness to convincing arguments contributes to a constructive discussion of problems. But in business communication in a more advantageous position there will be one who skillfully implements the principle of "it is important not to be honest and open, but to appear to them."
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Conditional acceptance of the opponent's arguments with the help of the phrases & quot; Suppose that you are right & quot ;, & quot; Suppose this is so & quot; will significantly stimulate the opponent to reveal his position. Such a cautious and conditional assessment will, if necessary, return to previous positions, without acknowledging the opponent's arguments.
In order to learn as much as possible about the partner's position, about the arguments he is going to use, one should not hurry up to enter into a dispute, delay objections, which will allow him to learn more about the vulnerable points of the opponent's argument system, so that, if necessary, critics.
It is very important, when arguing, to involve the opponent in a joint search for a solution, because the search process is no less important than the result. Sage Socrates did not show his decision, but involved the interlocutor in a joint search for truth, calling his method maieutics - the midwifery that helps to give birth to the truth. Therefore, in any discussion, conversation, negotiations, meeting in the process of argumentation, a ritual of participation is necessary, so that the result obtained is perceived as one's own.
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