Tactical block of the political campaign project
In contrast to the strategy, the tactic of a political campaign is a set of methods and methods for solving the tasks of a political campaign. Well thought out tactics allows you to set an algorithm of action for all participants of a political campaign and ensure the implementation of the strategy.
In previous chapters we got acquainted with various technologies used in political campaigns (ways of interacting with the media, advertising, organizing mass events, holding actions "door-to-door", etc.). We said that every reception is a kind of key, allowing us to open the access to the motivational structure of the personality and to exert influence on it. Since the individual characteristics of people are practically unlimited, the more tactical methods used in the political campaign are, the more likely that the subject of management will be able to spread his influence over a wider range of people.
The diversity of methods and methods of influencing the masses in political practice poses the problem of optimal choice for political managers. In other words, when developing the draft of a new political campaign, political managers must decide each time whether they need techniques, methods, how adequate they are to the goals of this political campaign, and whether they will help them achieve their goals.
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The problem of choice inevitably arises for two reasons. First, the resources of a political campaign are always limited, and therefore, it is necessary to select those methods and techniques that can be provided with resources. Secondly, each political campaign is unique in its own way, it is conducted in a specific situation and, therefore, it is necessary to take into account the specifics of both the political campaign itself and the conditions in which it is unfolding.
The main principle that political managers should follow when choosing methods of influencing the masses can be formulated as follows: unity in diversity. It is necessary in this way to design a political campaign, so that all a variety of techniques and techniques worked to implement common strategic goals.
If you follow this principle, then the development of tactics for a political campaign should begin with the choice of channels of communication with the object of influence. The following channels usually use the following channels in political campaigns for broadcasting information: the media, the Internet, advertising media, direct communication of the politician (his team) with the population, intermediaries in the form of opinion leaders, and rumors (Figure 14.3).
Themes of the information concept
Fig. 14.3. Communication channels in political campaigns
Earlier we examined the features of the main channels used to promote the themes of the political campaign. The task to be accomplished at the design stage is to select those that are most appropriate to the strategic objectives and can be provided with resources. For example: if there is no means for political advertising on television in the political campaign budget, this way of informing the masses is excluded; if the population does not read a certain newspaper, then it is excluded from the list of printed publications where advertising materials should be placed; If you do not have a database with addresses of voters, you will have to refuse direct mailing, etc. Based on the results of the selection procedure, a list of communication channels to be used during the political campaign and the types of information products that are supposed to be promoted through these channels are compiled.
The next step in developing tactics for a political campaign is the preliminary distribution of the alleged actions in time and space. It is necessary to decide where and when to take place, for example, meetings of the politician with the population, distribute flyers, organize press conferences, display commercials, etc. At this stage, we are not talking about drawing up an action plan, but the sequence of the proposed shares, their interrelationship is being determined.
We have repeatedly said that the meaning of a political campaign is to include in the mass consciousness information that could affect the attitudes of many people, their motivation. The content of this information, we recall, will be asked by the central theme of persuasive communication. Consequently, the whole set of events in a political campaign should be built in such a way as to ensure the deployment of the central theme, the strengthening of its sound, the increasing its convincing impact on people. It is this criterion that is used as the basis for determining the sequence of events in a political campaign.
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First of all, the question is solved, where, when, how the main theme will be declared. There can be many options: a meeting of the politician with the population, a speech by a politician at some congress or forum, an article in the newspaper, a clear hint in the comments of a well-known TV presenter, a statement by the press secretary, etc. The choice of some variant of the application of the main topic depends on many circumstances: from the content of the topic itself, the goals of the political campaign, the possibilities and resources. But whatever the chosen option, he will occupy the central place in the tactical drawing of the political campaign.
In some cases, it may be advisable to prepare public opinion for the perception of an important message from the point of view of political managers. To do this, you use the & quot; laying checkers & quot; actions are undertaken before the application of the main topic. These can be "information leaks", voiced by familiar journalists or bloggers, rumors that fuel interest in the topic.
After choosing the form and method of the main topic's application, the actions are determined which should ensure the sounding of the topic, the interest of the masses in this topic, their inclusion in the process of experiencing, discussing, remembering this topic. Since we have already talked about various methods and methods for introducing different ideas and attitudes into the mass consciousness, in this case we will confine ourselves to certain general remarks.
First, the sequence of shares should be built along the line of increasing emotional empathy with the topic, i.e. in the beginning it is necessary simply to inform the population, and then proceed to actions involving the establishment of emotional contact, for example, politics with people. The scheme, reflecting the sequence of shares, differing in the nature of the information, may look approximately as shown in Fig. 14.4.
Fig. 14.4. The sequence of emotional empathy for the information campaign topics
Secondly, you need to achieve the maximum coverage of address groups, i.e. the nature of the proposed shares should be such that in the field of information influence was almost every person from the corresponding address group. Therefore, it is necessary to strive for maximum diversification of information products and its adaptation to the specific features of the perception of individual social groups.
Thirdly, and this is the most important, - it is necessary to ensure the consistency of all conducted information, advertising and other actions. In large-scale political campaigns for each direction of information, advertising, mass work, there are different people who can have their own point of view on the sequence of events. Provide cumulative information impact on the control object can only be well worked out in the preliminary stage of the issues of a bundle between different stocks.
In the practice of election campaigns, there were four types of tactical construction of the election campaign. The first kind is the "jerk strategy", when a political campaign begins massively, powerfully. The candidate declares himself immediately through all communication channels, seeks to gain a foothold in the information space, create an effect of presence and drown out information about his rivals. The second kind is the "strategy of a successful final", - when a political campaign is built on the principle of increasing the information impact, there is a gradual increase in the pace of advertising and other events. The third kind is the "big event strategy", when the entire advertising and information campaign follows the coverage of one event, which very favorably shines the positive qualities of the candidate. The fourth kind is the "cruising movement", - when the campaign passes smoothly, all advertising and other events are evenly distributed over time.
Each of these types of tactical construction of information influence has its pros and cons. So, applying the jerk strategy, it is difficult to sustain the initially set pace of the advertising campaign, especially as competitors begin to pretend to the same information niche. But at the same time, for a candidate unknown to the general public, this kind of building an information campaign is not so bad, since it makes it immediately recognizable. The strategy of a successful finale allows you to increase the information impact at the time the decision is made by political actors, but its success can be called into question if political competitors can influence you earlier on population settings. & quot; Cruising traffic & quot; gives the opportunity to methodically acquaint the masses with information that corresponds to the goals of a political campaign, but if political competitors accelerate the rate of information impact, then the probability of losing the positions won in the information space becomes high. That is why it is expedient when developing a tactical pattern of information influence to abandon the typical solutions and in each specific case use a new combination of methods and methods of presence in the information space.
After the information-analytical group has decided on the issue of the tactical construction of a political campaign, i.e. with the question of what actions and in what sequence should be carried out, it is possible to translate the process of creating specific information products in a practical way. In the previous chapters, we talked about the peculiarities of the relationship between political managers and specialists invited to create posters, videotaping, writing speeches, etc., that it is important to ensure the conformity of information products with the main topics of the information campaign.
Let's pay attention to one more feature of this direction of activity. It is advisable to assign assignments for the creation of specific information products not only after the development of the strategy of a political campaign, but also after the outlines of its tactical construction become visible. In this case, it will be possible to maximally diversify information products while simultaneously adapting them to a particular event, to a specific action.
Only after the strategy of the political campaign has been developed, the main technological methods of implementing the strategy are determined, the problem of consistency and sequence of the deployment of shares and events is solved, preliminary agreement with the creators of information products is reached, we can start planning.
Planning a political campaign
A political campaign plan is a written document that clearly defines the course of a political campaign in time and space. It is possible to compose such a document only after clear answers have been received to four questions.
• What is being done? To answer this question it is possible only after the tactical drawing of the political campaign has been worked out, the priority directions have been determined, the channels for broadcasting the necessary information have been chosen, and the financial possibilities have been revealed. In the form formulated, the answer to this question is a list of activities, starting from the publication in local small print and ending with a major mass event.
• WHEN is it done? To answer this question, it is necessary, on top of the above, to know the time frame of the political campaign, how the supposed events are related, how realistic are the various terms of preparation of advertising products and mass events, etc.
• Where is it held? In addition to what has been said, the location of political actions is determined, in which areas billboards are scattered, in which houses are distributed certain leaflets, etc.
• Who is responsible? Each event in a political campaign requires human resources, i.e. a clear definition of who is preparing a meeting, organizes the submission of material to the press, pastes advertising posters, etc.
Thus, the political campaign plan is a list of activities with a clear indication of the place and time of their conduct, as well as the persons responsible for their organization. If all the preparatory work discussed above is done during the preparation of the plan, we can expect that the plan will contribute to the implementation of the main strategic goals of the political campaign and at the same time be realistic, taking into account both the current situation and the financial capabilities of the organizers of the political campaign. >
In large-scale political campaigns, when it is necessary to act in different directions, organize the promotion of information on many channels, it is advisable, within the overall plan, to compile more detailed charts for each direction. For example, the schedule of meetings of the candidate with the population, the schedule of placement of advertising in the media, the schedule for the distribution of leaflets, etc. Such network schedules allow more detailed preparation of the relevant shares. To implement such a separate schedule, a special group is mobilized, whose leader is fully responsible for the work of his wards.
If a political campaign unfolds in a competitive environment, when leakage of information about strategic objectives and tactical plans is highly undesirable, special schedules allow minimizing the consequences of such a leak. In this case, team members working, for example, in accordance with the schedule for the distribution of outdoor advertising, have information only about their direction of work. And even if competitors get a copy of such a schedule, they obviously will miss this information in order to get an idea of the strategy of the campaign and the specifics of its implementation as a whole.
Drawing up the plan completes the work of political managers on the draft political campaign. In terms of the idea of the campaign translated into the language of specific actions that must be committed to all team members in order to approach the stated political goals.
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