Assessment of hunting grounds
The estimation of hunting grounds can also be determined by the income approach. For such purposes, we will most often use the method of capitalizing the potential net income from their exploitation:
where Ц0 - valuation of hunting grounds; D - income from hunting management, for example, from the placement of hunters, provision of various services; F - income from the use of hunting grounds; З0 - expenses for hunting management, protection and reproduction of game animals, including biotechnical measures, registration works, hunting; r - the coefficient of capitalization for the land (discount rate).
If the time limits for obtaining income are limited, for example, when leasing a forest estate for hunting purposes, formulas can be used to determine the present value of future annual revenues that are limited to a given number of years.
If the hunting economy is commercial, ie. carries out the commercial production of hunting animals for sale of the products received from them, the income is estimated at the cost of the sold products, and the costs are based on the costs of hunting animals and the management of hunting facilities, including costs for biotechnical and other protective and reproduction activities.
If the farm is sporting (amateur) and organized to provide services to amateur hunters, rather than receiving commercial products from wild animals, the income is estimated at the cost of the services provided, including vouchers for extraction and payment of trophies. The cost of costs does not include the costs of hunting animals.
When combined management of the economy takes into account income from the sale of products and services.
The basis for calculating the value of income from the use of hunting grounds is the indicator of the biologically acceptable productivity of the land.
Biologically permissible productivity of hunting grounds characterizes the potential yield of products from hunting grounds while observing the norms of animal production. Production rates determine how many animals can be shot or removed from the natural habitat without undermining the reproductive capabilities of the population. They are usually close to the annual population growth.The indicator of the biologically acceptable productivity of hunting grounds is calculated as the sum of the production (or income from hunting animals) in the sale prices, which can be obtained with the complete withdrawal of all animals allowed for production in the assessed territory:
where N i is the total number of animals that are the most attractive objects of the fishery; i - a kind of hunting animals (i = 1,2, ..., n); К i - the standard of permissible withdrawal of animals of the i-th species; Цi - the selling price of hunting products obtained from an animal i type (furs, meat, horns, etc.).
The price of selling hunting products may also be the price of an animal's services (shooting, escorting, the cost of a trophy, for example, horns or skins, or other services counting one individual for the commercial organization of a hunting enterprise).
For licensed species, the standard K i is replaced by the number of animals allowed to be mined in accordance with licenses.
The estimation of biologically acceptable productivity is carried out on the basis of data of average autumn number of animals for the last 3-5 years. The production standards are set as a percentage of the autumn population. For migrating animal species, the standards for possible production are determined by the established standards of shooting or by the magnitude of the actual production. The selling price is determined by the prevailing price for all types of hunting products in the local market for the period of evaluation and is summarized in the case of obtaining different types of products from one animal. If information on such prices is not available, then prices for similar products can be used, for example, prices for meat and poultry, etc.
In determining the value of products derived from ungulate animal species, it is advisable in the calculations to take into account the age structure of the population and the number of young animals whose average weight is less than the weight of the adult. The costs for hunting management, including biotechnical, conservation and reproduction measures, are established from departmental sources at the actual level.
Also We Can Offer!
- Argumentative essay
- Best college essays
- Buy custom essays online
- Buy essay online
- Cheap essay
- Cheap essay writing service
- Cheap writing service
- College essay
- College essay introduction
- College essay writing service
- Compare and contrast essay
- Custom essay
- Custom essay writing service
- Custom essays writing services
- Death penalty essay
- Do my essay
- Essay about love
- Essay about yourself
- Essay help
- Essay writing help
- Essay writing service reviews
- Essays online
- Fast food essay
- George orwell essays
- Human rights essay
- Narrative essay
- Pay to write essay
- Personal essay for college
- Personal narrative essay
- Persuasive writing
- Write my essay
- Write my essay for me cheap
- Writing a scholarship essay