Rules and Arguments Errors
The result will be a discussion in which the rules of argumentation and criticism are observed with respect to all structural elements: thesis, arguments and demonstrations. Here are the general rules and the most common mistakes, noting that they are not always committed consciously.
Rules and errors with respect to the thesis.
The first and main requirement of the thesis must be the true for the proponent, i.e. he must believe in his truth, be convinced of it. The requirement of truth, as practice shows, is very important in business communication: no one will work effectively if the distortion of the truth is obvious. For example, the manager requires subordinates to strictly observe labor discipline, and he violates it. Behavior by the principle of "Do as I say, and not how I do", negates any attempt at effective leadership.
The rule of definiteness of the thesis states that the thesis should be clearly and clearly formulated for both the proponent and the opponent. First of all, the thesis should be clearly formulated for the proponent himself, which means that he thought about the problem so much that he did not have internal doubts about the thesis. Often a person undertakes to prove something, he does not fully understand what exactly he is going to prove. The thesis must be formulated clearly and accessible to the opponent, so that he adequately understands, realized that it is proved to him.
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The requirement to clearly discern the meaning of the statements made applies equally to the presentation of one's own thesis, and to the statement of the criticized position - the antithesis. In the textbook on logic LL Starchenko and VI Kirillov, the rule of ancient Indian philosophy is given, which would be useful to always remember in the process of discussion and dispute: "If you are going to criticize someone's situation, you should repeat the criticized thesis and get The consent of the present opponent, that his thought is correctly stated. Only after this, you can begin a critical analysis of the & quot;.
The rule of invariability of the thesis, prohibiting the modification of the originally formulated position or departing from it, follows from the basic law of logic - the law of identity. The proponent can change or clarify his thesis, but he must inform the opponent about this.
In a real process of argumentation, the violation of the law of identity leads to errors in the thesis, called the loss of thesis and the substitution of the thesis.
The loss of the thesis is present when the accuracy of the formulation and semantic unity of the thesis is violated. Having begun to prove one thesis, after some time in the course of this proof, they lose it and begin to prove another, similar to the first only externally. The loss of the thesis in modern language began to be perceived as a norm:
- Excuse me, please, can you tell me when the meeting began?
- It will be over soon.
- Will the ruble fall against the dollar?
- The central bank is taking measures to prevent a sharp fall in the exchange rate. Typical answers, are not they? We are so used to such texts that we do not notice any mistakes.
The loss of the thesis occurs involuntarily. Substitution of the thesis can occur unconsciously, when the speaker does not formulate clearly and definitely the main idea, and maybe quite conscious, when the participant of the discussion, instead of a clear answer to the question posed, turns aside and does not respond directly, but ascribes to the opponent what he did not say.
Substitution of the thesis as such is one of the characteristic features of a diplomatic speech that is specially taught. The professional skill of a diplomat is to hide his thoughts. A French politician and diplomat who served as foreign minister under the three regimes, from the Directory and ending with the government of King Louis Philippe, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord (1754-1838) said that "the language was given to a diplomat in order to hide his thoughts & quot;
When the substitution of a thesis takes place in business communication, one should try to understand: the interlocutor could not answer the question or did not want to do this? It is necessary to know the methods of substituting the thesis: instead of one question they try to put forward another, saying a lot not in essence, to divert attention; try to ascribe to the opponent another thought.
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