5. Special schools for training civil servants
Training of management personnel is a matter of national importance. It is carried out in developed countries through special management schools. In the Russian Federation, according to Professor A. Turchinov, 1 more than 100 schools have a license to train specialists with a higher education in the specialty "Personnel management". In the List of directions of training (specialties) of higher professional education, approved by the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the United States of January 12, 2005, No. 42, the name of direction 080505 & quot; Personnel management & quot; with the resulting qualification & quot; Manager & quot; for some reason, section 080000 "Economics and Management", and the terms "public administration", "administration" and & quot; administrator & quot; withdrawn from this classifier in general.
Referring to the ratio of specialists and politicians, it can be noted that politicians are elected by the population and perform the role of communication of the masses with the state apparatus. While only a qualified person can conduct a state farm. The talent of A. N. Kosygin to run the state is good. But society should not rely on casual geniuses, it should train rhythmically working management specialists. The foregoing allows us to assert that the state service, due to the division of labor in the state, requires specialists, and not random persons. And if in the mining system, as the US President Jackson used to say in the 19th century, all the posts are so simple that any citizen can cope with them, or the famous expression that in communism any cook will rule the state, now the world and the Russian Federation are suffering from incompetence and irresponsibility of the state apparatus. Correction of the shortcomings of the modern organization of the state apparatus can only be done on the path of professionalization of the state apparatus under the control of society.
For the first time the idea of the need to create a school that would train cadres for the state administrative apparatus arose in France in 1848, when the National Administrative School, which existed for one year, was established. In 1945, the Provisional Government, which was headed by General De Gaulle, issued a decree according to which the Administrative School was established with the task of training cadres for work in the Council of State of France, for a diplomatic career, for state financial inspection, for prefectures and other public services. In 1993, the Administrative School in connection with the policy of decentralization was partially transferred from Paris to Strasbourg. 7 percent of its graduates work in the civil service.
The administrative school has been criticized lately. First of all, a peculiar caste is noted: the students constitute a cohort of people who occupy key posts in the French administration. This cohort develops gradually, and it is extremely difficult to get into it. On the one hand, it would be nice. if the pupil of the School had experience of administrative work before the admission, but on the other hand, political convictions are formed with age, and they can influence the adoption of a decision, and the State Council should be guided only by the state interest, should be impartial. >
There must be a system in the country that would train the cadres to work in the state administration. In all countries, such structures exist. The administrative school of France is compared with the Higher Party School, which existed in the USSR. The comparison is justified only by the fact that in the life of society both schools performed the same function. Private educational institutions in principle can not train civil servants, so the fame of Stanford University in the US or of Oxford and Cambridge universities in the UK can not replace the need for a state approach to public affairs, without a raid of private interest. Particular interest is lobbyism, influence on state affairs by non-authorized persons. This is one of the varieties of the mining system.
In Brazil, tried to learn from the experience of the French National School of Administration. In 1986, the Ministry of Management established the National School of Public Administration (ENAP) within the framework of the administrative reform that was being carried out. The task of the special school of the administration was to solve problems: ensuring administrative continuity, eliminating thieves' interference in public administration and the need to give greater transparency and technical quality to the process of formulating public policy. Appointment and appointment as a career Government manager was dependent on the completion of these courses with good grades, within the framework of similar traditions of international government schools, and from authoritative Brazilian institutions such as Itamarati (Diplomatic School) and the School of Armed Forces Officials.
Government civil servants are federal civil servants who fall under the category of public policy specialists and government administrative specialists, whose list is approved by Law No. 7.834 of October 6, 1989. for work in the formulation, implementation and evaluation of public policy, and guidance and Cooperation in the higher echelons of the entire federal administration of Brazil. There are 960 positions of the federal public administration, of which about 230 are filled by government managers.
However, the administrative reforms of this period do not represent consistent strategic proposals for providing the state with staff of managers and advisors who are able to plan and conduct public policy competently, without the influence of blat (bribery), bribery and interference of private interest. The main emphasis was on paying government executives, the initial salary levels were set (excluding additional ones) as double to the highest level of employees of the federal administration and the job classification plan. However, inflation led to the fact that the career of government managers turned out to be provided with such wages, which made this advantage inadequate for the public service career to become one of the most attractive.
In Argentina, the functions of the school administrators are carried out by the National Institute of Public Administration. The motives for the creation of the Cabinet of Government Administrators are set out in the Decree of the President of the Argentine Nation No. 2098/87 of December 30, 1987, "National Public Administration", which approved the Charter and the Register of the Corps of Government Administrators. Article 2 of this Decree authorizes the Secretariat of the Public Service of the Presidency of the Nation to sign treaties with the provinces and municipalities in order to regulate the conditions for the arrival of agents of these organisms in training programs established as requisites for inclusion in the Cabinet of Government Administrators.
In the Russian Federation, the first is the need to train management specialists as a counterweight to the "communist" ideas of state dying and management personnel announced in the magazine "Communist" Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR NA Tikhonov. The Academy of Public Service of the USSR was established. Currently, the Regulation on the procedure and conditions for the participation of Russian educational institutions in competitive selection for the training of management personnel for organizations of the national economy of the Russian Federation is in force. But at the same time, a course was taken to train personnel for the civil service.
Russian Federation foreign educators abroad. Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of January 19, 1998 No. 44 approved the Regulations on the Procedure for Providing Work of Specialists Prepared in Accordance with the State Management Training Plan for the Organizations of the National Economy of the Russian Federation and the Model Contract with a Specialist prepared in accordance with the State Management Training Plan personnel for the national economy of the Russian Federation. That is, there is a bizarre combination of administrative reforms of the capitalist model with the planned distribution of specialists from the Soviet period. In this situation, the Russian reformers are waiting for the fate of their Brazilian counterparts.
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