1.2.2. Theory of Organizations as a Strategic Dimension
This scientific discipline is very close to the field of research that is connected with public policy. As you know, the theory of organizations was born in the 1920s. in USA. A significant contribution to this theory was made by
Ф. Taylor, A. Fayol, L. Gyulik, J. Mooney, L. Urvik, A. Reilly, M. Follett, C. Bernard, G. Simon and others
The theory of organizations has changed the content of sociological research. And this change was due to the fact that the scientific analysis, previously focused on the study of small groups, includes in its field of vision a variety of, including very large, organizations. Behind the known set of concrete researches it is possible to distinguish in the sociology of organizations three fundamental concepts.
A. The concept of the actor. - Members (agents) of the organization are not passive individuals. On the contrary, their place in the organization can only be determined through their action.
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B. The concept of strategy. - The actions of people in the organization are not based only on simple criteria (interest, love, hate, etc.). They are based on the more or less successful use of formal and informal organizational rules. The actor mobilizes his resources on the basis of strategy , which is focused on the implementation of certain by himself goals.
B. The concept of power. - This concept finds expression of the ability of agents (members of an organization) to use their trump cards (expertise, information, dominance over the conjugate space of the organization and its environment) in order to maximize its resources and strengthen its influence in the organization. And these relations within the organization are based on power.
Mr. The concept of an organized system. - The organization is something more than a set of actions of its members. The organization itself is an actor whose actions, as well as his relations with the environment, can be subjected to scientific analysis. The organization itself defines for itself the rules of operation that are imposed on different actors regardless of their preferences.
The organization's behavior is determined by the fact that there is some deviation of these unwritten rules from formal rules, which largely determines the functioning of this organization. And it is the identification of these rules that represents a significant contribution of the sociology of organizations to the theory of bureaucracy. The sociology of organizations, proceeding from the recognition of the complex nature of modern societies, largely raised the issue of human behavior in complex societies. And at this point, we come very close to the third intellectual source of analysis of public policy: public management.
1.2.3. Public management as a public application of private methods
Public management is a set of rational methods that are used by public decision-makers. As noted by the French sociologist F. Yusseno,
& quot; we are talking about modern management methods in the public sector. Modernization of public administration encompasses simultaneously the use of all tools that help to make decisions, provide information on some administrative tasks or procedures, or use publicity for communicating with the public. "
Even more clearly expressed the scientific director of the Institute of Management in France, Professor Annie Bartoli:
"Public management corresponds to the totality of the processes of finalization, organization, activation and control of public organizations aimed at developing them (Organizations - V.J., M. Zh.) general improvement and the direction of their evolution from a position of respect for their destination. "
As it is clear from this definition, the managerial approach is focused on the effectiveness criterion, and this is the main difference of this approach from what has been called the "public policy analysis"."Management," says Chevalier, "is a compromise between the requirements of achieving new efficiency and attachment to the usual public management ... Like private enterprises, the administration is called upon to exercise management in the best way by using the means by which it disposes; However, efficiency is evaluated primarily from the position of the degree of implementation of the goals defined by the elected representatives, and not only on the basis of financial "profitability". Public management is aimed at improving public efficiency, which would allow the administration to achieve the goals that are prescribed for it with minimal costs. "
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Public management raises the issue of the specifics of public organizations in comparison with the private sector. It should be emphasized that the emergence of public management is evidence of the rationality of the modern nature of the administration. At the same time, public management is synonymous with new ideas about the role of the state in society.
In management of administrative complex systems , the emergence of public management is sometimes interpreted on the basis of historical separation of public and private. Thus, Roman Laufer, on the basis of the classical periodization of administrative law, identifies three phases in the formation of this management:
• from 1800 to 1880 - 1900 gg. During this period, the dominant criterion was public power;
• from 1880 - 1900 gg. for 1945 - 1960 years. During this period, the criterion of public service prevailed;
• The third period opens in subsequent years, when a crisis of public service is discovered, and more generally, there is a gap between public and private.It is significant that for each of the periods indicated by Lawer, there is a special, administrative language.
So, in the first period, the administrative action is determined by the principle of hierarchical subordination to politics and respect for the legal rule. And because of the administrative & quot; language & quot; is right.
In the second period, the administration (in the interest of achieving public goals) begins to use more and more widely the knowledge of specialists. This enriches the administrative "language": the technical language is added to the right, which is used by specialists of a particular public service. Therefore, any organization can be considered as a structure having its own board.
In the third period, in the context of the crisis between the boundaries between the public and private sectors, the & quot; language & quot; "is affected, on the one hand, by the increase in the number of new legal entities that correspond to administrative systems whose legitimacy bases are mixed or uncertain ... and, on the other hand, an increasingly intense debate on the benefits in the case of transferring one or the other administrative system with both, and on the other hand, to this uncertain boundary. " I must say that it is on this third period that the manager's "language" appears.
Rights P. Mulla, when he writes that this evolution of the language itself reflects a change in the content of public action. Indeed. Administrative & quot; language & quot; Used in the heyday of the bureaucracy. The language of experts is used in the period of the birth of large organizations. Finally, the manager's & quot; language & quot; It is used by the administration, which has turned into a place from where the management of the complexity of the world is conducted. Eno, of course, does not mean that under modern conditions, neither the legal logic nor the logic of public service is influenced. Analysis of the system, as P. Müller points out, is a way of comprehending a complex society, and public management - "language" state in a complex society.
It must also be said that in no case can business management and public management be identified, for both are guided by different logic. This is clearly written by P. Gilbert:
"The basic relations of a private enterprise with its environment are characterized by exchanges, contracts, will agreements," while "public administrations ... unilaterally withdraw resources, distribute them and make payments without compensation ... they prohibit in the opposite sense, they are obliged to do and more broadly regulate behavior. "
This means that in cases where the concepts of analyzing public policy allow the study of private organizations, however, the tools of this discipline are very specific.
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