Addressing in local networks
For computers to communicate with each other, it is necessary, as in ordinary mail or telephone communication, to distinguish between computers operating on the network-who sends the request message, who answers where to get the information for the answer. In order not to get confused & quot; on networks & quot;, computers are given their own names and addresses.
Network Computer Names are used only on local networks (although they can also be used in corporate networks) to access a specific resource (logical disk, network folder, connected peripheral device). The entry string is the following: servershare - the template for the name of one particular network resource.
Characters are signs of a local network name. The word sewer stands for the actual network name of the computer, which can be an arbitrary character set. The separator helps you specify the name of a specific network resource. The word share denotes the conditional name of a particular resource, usually the name of the local or network drive (but not the colon at the end), the name of the folder, the name of the peripheral device - printer, scanner, fax. For example: pravof or 5-107-14LaserJet4L or uchebaz or 3-230-4dKlimov108 Sidors To connect or disconnect a network resource, you must select the context menu item of the My Computer object on the Desktop i> (Figure 10.9).
In the Drive Network Connection dialog, in the Drive field, select the conditional name under which the network resource to connect is visible on the computer, in the Folder Enter the name of the network resource to connect. If necessary, you can further automatically Restore
Fig. 10.9. Connecting a network drive
when logging in this network resource. Modern operating systems allow you to Connect (network resource) under a different name. For example, log in as Student, and connect the network share on behalf of Administrator. If the connection is under a different name, you must enter a password that Administrator has protected access to this resource.
Let's note that using one network name can not connect to the computer as a whole (immediately to all of its available resources, allowed for the network), if the resource name is not specified. If you have several available (share - & quot; shared & quot;) on the same computer for work on the resource network, the connection to each of them must be done separately. Let's admit and the opposite variant - connection of several users (computers) to one network resource.
The network resources can be the logical devices of external memory (disks) and folders for which the administrator or their owner allowed the general (network) access. Folders, unlike disks, are specialized files with the attribute FLDR; can act as a network resource. All other types of files can not connect as network resources.
Network services designed to manage the network are part of almost all widely used operating systems. This allows you to build a peer-to-peer network (distributed star) without a server, in which all computers are equal. After connecting the computers with a twisted pair through a hub or switch and setting network parameters on each computer (including network names and access rights to shared resources), the network is ready to work. Despite the equality of both computers and network resources (it is assumed that they all have the same access rights) in the peer-to-peer network, there is an inequality of rights when working with files.
This property is embedded in operating systems - only one copy of the open file is available for full-fledged work. If from a common network resource several users have opened one file for work, only the user who first accesses this file will have the opportunity to work with it. Other users will work with this file in read only mode. When working with one document, users are actually asked to edit it in turn.
Eliminate user inequality possible, but to & quot; bypass & quot; this is an unpleasant property of the operating system, you should either break the equality of computers on the network, or "teach" application programs automatically take into account the interests of several users. An example of the latter is the Access database management system from the Microsoft Office application suite. One database allows simultaneous work with equal rights for several users.
In the first variant, the inequality is added to the network structure, giving one of the computers (more precisely, the program installed on it) greater rights. This is a transition to the structure of the network & quot; star & quot; with a dedicated server computer. In the case of software, it is also necessary to switch to client-server technology in order to fully realize the equality of all users on the network.
Most users with different levels of computer skills to make such a transition (more precisely, the creation of anew network) is unlikely to succeed. As a rule, one specially trained qualified user (less often a group) is singled out to solve all network problems. This privileged user, called the network administrator, or the system administrator, maintains the normal operation of the network and is responsible for its security.
The duties of the system administrator are very wide: the installation of new hardware and software components in the network, their configuration; elimination of incompatibility, conflicts, disruptions in work; control over the work of users; backup of important information; backup and recovery from operating system failures; protection from malicious programs and malicious attacks; planning of possible scaling (expansion, development) of the network.
The system administrator takes into account many parameters of computers, communication equipment, software.
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